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College football: Week 8

Monday, October 17th, 2022

Welcome back, KJ.

Arkansas quarterback KJ Jefferson threw a career-high five touchdown passes in the Razorbacks’ 52-35 victory over Brigham Young. Rocket Sanders added a career-high 175 rushing yards, and Matt Landers caught three touchdown passes. It was quite an afternoon for the Arkansas offense as the Hogs scored on eight consecutive possessions at one point.

Arkansas outgained BYU 644-471 and won the turnover battle 3-1. Jefferson was 29 of 40 passing for 367 yards as Arkansas broke its three-game losing streak.

BYU is now 4-7 against schools from the Southeastern Conference. The Cougars come to Fayetteville to play next year.

It’s a good time for an open date for the 4-3 Razorbacks. They get struggling Auburn on the road in their next game.

Arkansas isn’t the state’s only team with an open date this week. UCA and UAPB also have the weekend off.

UCA moved to 2-0 in the ASUN Conference and 3-4 overall with its impressive 51-24 victory at Kennesaw State. The Bear offense had by far its best performance of the season.

UAPB suffered a fifth consecutive loss, falling in Pine Bluff to Alabama A&M by a final score of 34-31. The Golden Lions are now 2-5 overall and 0-4 in the SWAC.

We struggled for a second consecutive week on the picks, going 4-3 to make the season record 46-15. Most of the teams in Arkansas are highly inconsistent this year, making it difficult to predict how they will do.

Here are the picks for this week’s abbreviated schedule:

Louisiana-Lafayette 37, Arkansas State 32 — It was another frustrating game for the Red Wolves as they fell by a final score of 20-19 at Southern Mississippi. ASU led 19-7 in the fourth quarter, but the Golden Eagles went on scoring drives of 95 and 45 yards. ASU is now 2-5 overall and 1-3 in Sun Belt Conference play. The Red Wolves go on the road this week to take on a Ragin’ Cajun squad that is 3-3. The Louisiana-Lafayette victories have come by scores of 24-7 over Southeastern Louisiana, 49-21 over Eastern Michigan and 23-13 over Marshall. The losses were by scores of 33-21 to Rice, 21-17 to Louisiana-Monroe and 20-17 to South Alabama. This is a winnable contest for ASU, but the Red Wolves have yet to show the ability to win such games.

Ouachita 40, Southern Arkansas 25 — Ouachita moved up to No. 4 in the American Football Coaches Association NCAA Division II national rankings with a 41-7 win over UAM. Ouachita is now 7-0 on the season and is 38-2 in its previous 40 Great American Conference games. Senior All-American running back T.J. Cole had 232 yards rushing and two touchdowns in the win over the Boll Weevils. Kendel Givens added 141 yards and three touchdowns. Ouachita’s defense has allowed 14 or fewer points in five of its seven games. The Tigers play Southern Arkansas in the Murphy USA Classic at El Dorado on Saturday afternoon. The Muleriders are 3-4 after beating Arkansas Tech by a final score of 49-33 in Russellville on Saturday as Jariq Scales gained 152 yards on 20 carries and scored three touchdowns for the Muleriders.

Henderson 41, Arkansas Tech 24 — The Reddies are 5-2 after going to Searcy on Saturday and stunning Harding by a final score of 15-14. Tristan Heaton put Henderson ahead for good with a 46-yard field goal with 6:40 left in the game. Tech comes to Arkadelphia this week with a 3-4 record. Henderson just has too much firepower for the Wonder Boys.

Harding 30, UAM 20 — Harding is the defending GAC champion and was the coaches’ preseason pick to win the conference in 2022. The Bisons, though, have now lost to both Arkadelphia schools to fall to 5-2. Expect an angry group of Bisons to get that option offense going again this Saturday in Monticello against 3-4 UAM.

Rex’s ranking’s: After eight weeks

Monday, October 17th, 2022

As expected, our top two teams had no problem last week. No. 1 Bryant rolled to a 35-8 victory over Little Rock Southwest, and Cabot beat Little Rock Central by a final score of 49-13.

They play each other this week.

The game of the week came in northwest Arkansas as Bentonville edged Fayetteville 31-30 after a successful two-point conversion play in overtime.

Our No. 1 teams in each classification remained the same: Bryant in 7A, Pulaski Academy in 6A, Joe T. Robinson in 5A, Arkadelphia in 4A, Prescott in 3A and Hazen in 2A.

Here are the updated rankings with just three weeks remaining in the regular season:


  1. Bryant
  2. Cabot
  3. Pulaski Academy
  4. Bentonville
  5. Conway
  6. Greenwood
  7. Little Rock Catholic
  8. Joe T. Robinson
  9. Shiloh Christian
  10. Arkadelphia


  1. Bryant
  2. Cabot
  3. Bentonville
  4. Conway
  5. Fayetteville


  1. Pulaski Academy
  2. Greenwood
  3. Little Rock Catholic
  4. Benton
  5. Lake Hamilton


  1. Joe T. Robinson
  2. Shiloh Christian
  3. Little Rock Mills
  4. Little Rock Parkview
  5. Camden Fairview


  1. Arkadelphia
  2. Malvern
  3. Warren
  4. Harding Academy
  5. Star City


  1. Prescott
  2. Rison
  3. Charleston
  4. Booneville
  5. Melbourne


  1. Hazen
  2. Carlisle
  3. Bigelow
  4. Mount Ida
  5. Marked Tree

College football: Week 7

Monday, October 10th, 2022

There’s no way around it. It was a bad week for college football teams in Arkansas.

The 13 college football programs in the state went 3-10 against out-of-state opponents. I don’t remember a week like that.

The NCAA Division I teams were 0-4.

Arkansas lost 40-17 to Mississippi State to fall to 3-3.

Arkansas State lost 42-20 to James Madison to fall to 2-4.

UCA lost 52-49 to Lindenwood to fall to 2-4.

UAPB lost 24-17 to Texas Southern to fall to 2-4.

In NCAA Division II, the six Great American Conference teams from Arkansas went 3-3 against GAC foes from Oklahoma.

I checked the NCAA Division III ranks, and it didn’t get any better. Hendrix lost 34-28 to Millsaps.

I then checked the NAIA ranks, and it was just as bad. Lyon lost 60-8 to Arizona Christian, and Arkansas Baptist lost 48-14 to Louisiana Christian.

I had my worst week by far, going 5-5 on the picks. Outside of Ouachita and Harding winning, I can no longer figure out the GAC. There’s no rhyme or reason to the other results in the conference. And both UCA and ASU continue to play worse than I had expected going into the season.

With that 5-5 mark last week, the season record now stands at 42-12.

Here are the picks for this weekend’s games:

BYU 41, Arkansas 39 — Will Rogers riddled the Arkansas secondary, passing for 395 yards and three touchdowns. Mississippi State also rushed for 173 yards and had 568 yards of total offense. Rogers now has the Southeastern Conference record for career completions at 946, surpassing Georgia’s Aaron Murray at 921. Murray played from 2010-13. Malik Hornsby did fine for Arkansas since he was responsible for 347 of the Hogs’ 483 yards of offense. Arkansas has now lost three consecutive games. It has had at least a three-game losing streak in 10 of the past 11 seasons. BYU is 4-2 with victories of 50-21 over South Florida, 26-20 over a Baylor team that was ranked No. 9 at the time, 38-24 over Wyoming and 38-26 over Utah State. The losses have been by scores of 41-20 to Oregon and 28-20 to Notre Dame in prime time on NBC last Saturday night. This is a winnable game for Arkansas, but a slight edge goes to the home team.

Southern Mississippi 40, Arkansas State 35 — In Jonesboro on Saturday night, James Madison scored touchdowns on four of five series in the second half and moved to 5-0 in its first FBS season. ASU had only 12 first downs and was outgained 598-267. The Red Wolves go on the road this week to take on a Southern Miss squad that is also struggling at 2-3. The losses have been by scores of 29-27 to Liberty, 30-7 to Miami and 27-10 to Troy. The wins were by scores of 64-10 over Northwestern State of Louisiana and 27-24 over Tulane. As is the case with Arkansas, this is a winnable game for ASU. Again, we’ll pick the home team to win a close one.

Kennesaw State 30, UCA 27 — In Conway last Saturday night, the Bears never held the lead despite gaining 590 yards and averaging 8.8 yards per play. Their defense was just that bad. UCA goes on the road this week to take on a 2-3 Kennesaw State team in Georgia. The Kennesaw victories have been by scores of 24-22 over Wofford and 40-34 over North Alabama. The losses have been by scores of 27-17 to Samford, 63-10 to Cincinnati and 35-28 to Jacksonville State. Here we go again: This is a winnable game for UCA, but we give the advantage to the home team.

Alabama A&M 21, UAPB 19 — The Golden Lions lost their homecoming game to Texas Southern. This weekend they play on Sunday in a special HBCU classic in St. Louis. Alabama A&M is also 2-4 with wins in its past two games of 35-27 over Bethune-Cookman and 37-31 over Grambling. The four losses to open the season were by scores of 59-0 to UAB, 38-17 to Troy, 28-3 to Austin Peay and 38-25 to Florida A&M.

Ouachita 34, UAM 20 — Ouachita is still No. 5 in the country in the American Football Coaches Association NCAA Division II poll. The Tigers moved to 6-0 with a 63-24 victory over a Southwestern Oklahoma team that had come in with a 3-2 record. The Tigers scored touchdowns on their first six possessions to lead 42-17 at halftime. Senior T.J. Cole rushed for 144 yards and three touchdowns. Sophomore Kendel Givens added 118 yards of rushing on the ground. Quarterback Riley Harms passed for 197 yards and ran for 81 more. Ouachita had 709 yards of offense, with 481 yards of that coming on the ground. Those totals could have been much higher had Ouachita not put the substitutes in the game with nine minutes still remaining in the third quarter. UAM was shocked in its homecoming game, losing 26-23 to a Northwestern Oklahoma team that came in 0-5. Boll Weevil quarterback Demilon Brown was 20 of 30 passing for 163 yards. UAM is now 3-3.

Harding 31, Henderson 22 — Harding moved to 5-1 with a 56-28 win at Southern Nazarene. The Bisons are No. 12 in this week’s AFCA poll. Will Fitzhugh rushed for two touchdowns as Harding piled up 469 yards of offense. Henderson fell to 4-2 with a 31-10 road loss to 4-2 East Central Oklahoma. ECU scored 17 unanswered points in the fourth quarter of that game. This Saturday’s game is in Searcy, and Harding should win.

Southern Arkansas 29, Arkansas Tech 26 — This is a hard one to pick since the teams seem evenly matched from a talent standpoint. SAU is 2-4, and Tech is 3-3. The Wonder Boys posted a 34-13 victory over 1-5 Oklahoma Baptist. Tech built a 21-0 lead and rolled on from there in a road game at Shawnee. Meanwhile, Southern Arkansas fell 35-32 to 3-3 Southeastern Oklahoma. The Muleriders scored 25 of their 32 points in the fourth quarter of that game.

Rex’s Rankings: After seven weeks

Monday, October 10th, 2022

There was one major change last week in the high school football rankings.

Cabot defeated No. 2 Conway by a score of 35-20 and moved up from No. 5 overall to Conway’s previous No. 2 spot.

The top teams in each of the seven classifications remained the same.

Here are the updated rankings with just four weeks remaining in the regular season.


  1. Bryant
  2. Cabot
  3. Pulaski Academy
  4. Bentonville
  5. Conway
  6. Lake Hamilton
  7. Greenwood
  8. Little Rock Catholic
  9. Joe T. Robinson
  10. Arkadelphia


  1. Bryant
  2. Cabot
  3. Bentonville
  4. Conway
  5. Fayetteville


  1. Pulaski Academy
  2. Lake Hamilton
  3. Greenwood
  4. Little Rock Catholic
  5. Benton


  1. Joe T. Robinson
  2. Shiloh Christian
  3. Little Rock Mills
  4. Little Rock Parkview
  5. Camden Fairview


  1. Arkadelphia
  2. Malvern
  3. Warren
  4. Harding Academy
  5. Star City


  1. Prescott
  2. Rison
  3. Charleston
  4. Booneville
  5. Melbourne


  1. Hazen
  2. Carlisle
  3. Bigelow
  4. Mount Ida
  5. East Poinsett County

A day in Washington

Tuesday, November 24th, 2020


Some of the most famous figures in the history of the Republic of Texas spent time at Washington in Hempstead County before making their way west.

Stephen F. Austin, known as the Father of Texas, lived in Arkansas after leaving Missouri. Austin, who was born in November 1793 in southwest Virginia, grew up in southeast Missouri in a lead mining region.

“Austin’s father not only mined, smelted and manufactured lead but also established a general store that young Austin managed after finishing school,” Susan Martinez Heinritz writes for Central Arkansas Library System’s Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “Austin’s father wanted him to receive a good education so he sent him at age 11 to the Bacon Academy in Colchester, Conn., from 1804-07. Austin continued his education at Transylvania University in Lexington, Ky., for another two years. After finishing school at age 17, Austin worked in business with his father, first running the general store in Potosi, Mo., a town Moses Austin had helped create. Stephen F. Austin later managed his father’s mines.”

The younger Austin later was a director of the Bank of St. Louis. The failure of that bank led him to live on a tract of land along the Red River in southwest Arkansas in what’s now Lafayette County.

“Although he didn’t stay in Arkansas long, he established a farm with some of the merchandise he brought from Missouri,” Heinritz writes. “Having experience in politics in Missouri, Austin ran for election as a delegate to Congress from the new Arkansas Territory in November 1819. He was defeated by James Woodson Bates. Austin then was appointed circuit judge of the First Judicial District of the territory by Gov. James Miller in 1820. He only held the position in July and August of that year before heading to Natchitoches, La., and then to New Orleans in December.”

During his time in southwest Arkansas, Austin spent a number of days at Washington, which was the leading town in that part of the state.

Sam Houston, who was twice the president of the Republic of Texas, lived among the Cherokee in Arkansas from May 1829 until November 1832.

Houston, who had been born in Virginia in March 1793, served in the U.S. House of Representatives from Tennessee and then was elected governor of that state. When his marriage to Eliza Allen fell apart, Houston resigned as governor in April 1829 and headed to Arkansas.

“Traveling in disguise by the steam packet Red Rover, by flatboat and by steamboat to Arkansas Territory, Houston arrived in Little Rock on May 8, 1829,” Samuel Pyeatt Menefee writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “Houston apparently had heard rumors that he was contemplating a filibustering expedition (an unauthorized military incursion to foment or support a revolution) to Texas and obliquely denied them in a letter. He was, however, in good enough spirits to try to mend bridges between Andrew Jackson and Robert Crittenden, the acting governor, and to report that he intended to engage in a summer buffalo hunt.”

Houston then went up the Arkansas River to what’s now Oklahoma to visit John Jolly’s band of Cherokee, with whom he had once lived.

In a September 1829 letter to Jackson, Houston said of living in Arkansas: “I have concluded that it would not be best for me to adopt the course. In that Territory there is no field for distinction — it is fraught with factions; and if my object were to obtain wealth, it must be done by fraud, and peculation upon the Government, and many perjuries would be necessary to its effectuation!”

Houston received citizenship in the Cherokee Nation the following month. He wore native dress and often refused to speak English.

In December 1829, he traveled to Washington, D.C., as a Cherokee representative. Between June and December 1830, Houston wrote five articles for the Arkansas Gazette about the removed tribes and the activities of federal Indian agents. Menefee says these articles represented “the first defense of Native American rights and exposure of government corruption written by a well-known Westerner.”

Houston spent the summer of 1833 at Hot Springs, hoping the mineral waters there would help him recuperate from an old shoulder wound. He often would spend time in Washington, Ark., on his trips to and from Texas.

In their 1967 book “Sam Houston with the Cherokees,” Jack Gregory and Rennard Strickland said many Houston’s ideas were formulated during his time in the Arkansas Territory.

Another visitor to Washington was the legendary frontiersman Davy Crockett, who stayed there on his way from Tennessee to Texas in 1835.

It was at a banquet in Little Rock that Crockett stated: “If I could rest anywhere, it would be in Arkansas, where the men are of the real half-horse, half-alligator breed such as grow nowhere else on the face of the universal earth but just around the backbone of North America.”

Crockett had served in Congress from Tennessee from 1827-31 and 1833-35. He published an 1834 autobiography titled “A Narrative of the Life of David Crockett of the State of Tennessee” and became a popular figure across the young country.

“To derail Crockett’s political plans, Andrew Jackson and William Carroll, governor of Tennessee, engineered Crockett’s defeat in his bid for re-election to Congress,” Jeff Bailey writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “Crockett was defeated by 252 votes. Crockett hoped to revive his political career in Texas and left Tennessee for good in November 1835. Crockett and his party were well received during a stop in Little Rock.

“After leaving Little Rock, Crockett was toasted and celebrated for several days while in Washington, Ark. He then continued the journey to Texas with numerous unconfirmed exploits along the way adding to the Crockett legend. Once in Texas, Crockett and his men joined Col. William B. Travis in the fight for Texas independence. Crockett was killed by the Mexican Army during the last day of the Battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836, adding a final chapter to his colorful life.”

Jim Bowie, who also was killed at the Alamo, had earlier earned notoriety in Arkansas for fraudulent land claims. It’s believed that Washington blacksmith James Black made what would become the famous bowie knife for Bowie at Washington in 1831.

In addition to Anglo settlers heading to Texas, members of the Choctaw and Chickasaw nations traveled through Washington as part of the Trail of Tears Indian removal.

“Residents of Hempstead County began petitioning for a new road in 1821,” Steve Teske writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “By 1828, the Camden to Washington Road was having additional work done. A new courthouse was built in 1836, and many of Arkansas’ most prominent attorneys practiced in Washington during the following 25 years. The Washington Telegraph began to be printed in 1840. It was the oldest weekly newspaper west of the Mississippi River until it ceased publication in 1946.

“A Presbyterian church was established in 1836, and a Baptist church was built in 1845. Washington had both a male and female academy, as well as several smaller schools. In the summer of 1846, 870 volunteers gathered in Washington to form a cavalry unit to serve in the Mexican War. By 1860, Washington included seven dry goods stores, two drugstores, a tailor shop, a watch repair shop and other businesses. Wealthy families built mansions, some of which have been restored and are preserved in Historic Washington State Park. The area had many slaves who served as household servants and worked in the cotton fields surrounding the city.”

Washington was important since the Camden to Washington Road met the heavily utilized Southwest Trail there.

“The first effort to create the Camden to Washington Road began in 1821 when residents of Hempstead County petitioned the Court of Common Pleas to construct a road linking their county with a point on the Ouachita River,” writes historian David Sesser of Henderson State University at Arkadelphia. “This would allow farmers to transport their crops to the nearest navigable river. A map drawn that same year showed a road leaving Ecore Fabre (now Camden), running to the northwest in the direction of Washington. Additional work was done around 1828, and the road had several overseers assigned to it, each responsible for the maintenance of a section of the route.

“The road was constructed by connecting existing roads with new routes. Feeder routes branched off the road to the north and south, but the Camden to Washington Road served as the major transportation route for the area. It’s possible that some members of the Choctaw Nation used the road in the 1830s during Indian removal. The road also appears on a map created by the Confederate Army in 1865. It likely was used by Confederate forces during the Camden Expedition.”

Twelve companies of Confederate soldiers were raised in Hempstead County. A Washington physician named Charles Burton Mitchel had been chosen by the Arkansas Legislature in 1860 to serve in the U.S. Senate. He resigned from the U.S. Senate and served in the Confederate Senate until his death in 1864.

Mitchel had been born in Tennessee in 1815. He received his medical degree from Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia in 1836 and moved to the new state of Arkansas later that year. He was elected to the Legislature in 1848. He lost his race for the state Senate in 1850.

“Mitchel was active in the Masonic lodge and also farmed in the Ozan and Bois d’Arc townships of Hempstead County,” Teske writes. “In 1860, Mitchel ran for Congress from Arkansas’ Second District but was defeated by Edward W. Gantt. More than 30,000 votes were cast in the district, and the margin of victory for Gantt was roughly 2,500 votes. Shortly thereafter, the Legislature met to fill the Senate seat vacated by the retirement of Robert Ward Johnson. With the question of secession weighing on the minds of most government officials, Gov. Henry Rector suggested that the position of U.S. senator not be filled.

“The Legislature chose not to follow Rector’s suggestion and invited five candidates, including Mitchel, to address the assembly. All five spoke of acting cautiously in regards to the idea of secession. Mitchel said the election of Abraham Lincoln was a reason for alarm but not a reason for division. He was elected senator on the ninth ballot on Dec. 20, 1860. His term of office began March 4, 1861. He was in Washington at that time but had returned home to Arkansas by the end of the month. His resignation from the Senate didn’t become official until July 11.”

Mitchel later headed to Richmond to serve in the Confederate Senate. He died at his home in Washington on Sept. 20, 1864, and is buried in Presbyterian Cemetery at Washington.

The Confederate government of Arkansas fled Little Rock just before the city fell to Union forces in September 1863. The Confederate Legislature met at the Hempstead County Courthouse in Washington until the war ended in 1865. That building is now one of the attractions of Historic Washington State Park.

“In 1824, Washington was designated the Hempstead County seat,” Kayla Kesterson writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “By 1835, local officials recognized the need for a new county courthouse. The circuit court had previously met in a one-room building constructed by Tilman L. Patterson, who also supervised the construction of the new two-story courthouse. It was built in 1836 for $1,850. Between the time of its construction and the advent of the Civil War, the building was used not only for circuit court meetings but also hosted meetings of the Freemasons and held the office and records of the county clerk until a separate building for the clerk was constructed in 1839 by Daniel Alexander.

“The 1836 courthouse served as the county seat of justice for almost 40 years. During that time, the condition and size of the courthouse called for a new building. As early as 1859, Judge Milton Holt was urged by citizens to construct a new courthouse. He appointed Robert Gibson, John Ely and R.W. Price as commissioners to inquire into the possible cost of construction of a courthouse, clerk’s office and county jail. They presented their first plan for the buildings in 1860. In January 1861, the country court discussed the need to fireproof the clerk’s office. Before any significant changes could be made, Arkansas seceded from the Union.”

Confederate Gov. Harris Flanagin of Arkadelphia had heard that Union troops were advancing on Little Rock in 1863 and ordered state documents to be gathered and moved out of the city. They wound up in Washington.

“In September 1864, the Arkansas General Assembly, under Confederate authority, met at the courthouse under the pretense that it was important to hold special sessions to show the world that the refugee state government was still active,” Kesterson writes. “It met only a few more times before the end of the war. In 1866, Holt was appointed commissioner of public buildings and ordered to carry out suitable repairs on the courthouse and clerk’s office, which had undergone considerable damage from the 12th Michigan Infantry occupying Washington after the surrender. After the war, the building returned to use as a courthouse until a new one was built in 1874.

“The building served as a schoolhouse from 1875-1914, as a justice of the peace office and residence, and then as a museum. In 1922, the first unsuccessful attempt to preserve the structure was made, followed by a more successful venture by the United Daughters of the Confederacy in 1928. From that time forward, the building was used as a museum and a place to hold meetings. In 1973, the building became part of the state park.”

The structure was added to the National Register of Historic Places in May 1972.

One of the state’s leading figures at the time of the Civil War was a Washington resident, Grandison Delaney Royston. Royston was born in December 1809 in Tennessee and moved to Arkansas in April 1832. He first settled at Fayetteville, where he practiced law and taught school. Later that year, he headed to Washington and spent the rest of his life there.

Royston was appointed prosecuting attorney in 1833. He served in that role until 1835, when he was elected as a delegate to the state’s first constitutional convention in 1836. Royston later served as a member of Gov. Thomas Stevenson Drew’s administration and was a general in the state militia.

“In 1861, Royston was elected to the first Confederate Congress in Richmond and served one term before losing a re-election bid to Rufus K. Garland,” writes Len Pitcock of Hot Springs. “He, like many prominent Southerners of the day, had initially opposed secession but supported the institution of slavery. On July 17, 1865, Royston and fellow former Confederate lawmaker Augustus Hill Garland traveled to Washington, D.C., to receive a postwar pardon from President Andrew Johnson. Garland went on to serve as governor and later became the first Cabinet member from the state, serving as U.S. attorney general under President Grover Cleveland.

“The final chapter of Royston’s public life came in 1874 when he was elected to preside over the constitutional convention in Little Rock. He was the only member to have served in both this gathering and the first convention of 1836. Royston, a staunch Democrat, served as a national convention delegate in later life and briefly considered a run for the U.S. Senate before deciding against it.”

Royston, who died in August 1889 at age 79, is buried at Old Washington Cemetery. His home was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in June 1971.

A Freedmen’s Bureau was established at Washington after the Civil War to help freed slaves.

“Washington remained an important city in south Arkansas after the war, building a new courthouse in 1874,” Teske writes. “When the Cairo & Fulton Railroad was constructed through Hempstead County that same year, it bypassed Washington and ran instead eight miles south through the city of Hope. Businesses began to relocate to Hope, especially after Washington’s business district was devastated by fire in 1875 and then again in 1883. Proposals to move the county government from Washington to Hope were heard as early as 1879, but the move didn’t happen until 1939.

“Even before the county government was moved, the demise of Washington was visible. Work to restore and preserve historic buildings began in 1929 with a grant of $5,000 from the Legislature to restore the 1836 courthouse. A 1947 tornado damaged parts of the city, destroying the historic Baptist church. Aside from its historic buildings, Washington consisted of only a handful of businesses and a few homes by 1958. The Pioneer Washington Restoration Foundation was organized that year and began collecting money to preserve the city’s many historic buildings. What was originally known as Old Washington State Park was created by the state in 1973 to continue the restoration work.”

Rex’s Rankings: The playoffs continue

Monday, November 16th, 2020

We’ve made it through the first week of the high school football playoffs in this year of the virus.

As expected, some good teams — teams such as Bentonville West and Benton — had to forfeit games.

In 2020, it will be as much about staying healthy as it is about playing well for those teams that make it to state title games.

No. 1 Bryant did just as expected, winning easily by a final score of 34-7 over Rogers Heritage.

No. 2 Bentonville had the week off. In fact, many of our ranked teams had last Friday night off.

Here are the updated rankings as we head into the second week of the playoffs:


  1. Bryant
  2. Bentonville
  3. Pulaski Academy
  4. Greenwood
  5. North Little Rock
  6. Wynne
  7. Little Rock Parkview
  8. Lake Hamilton
  9. Shiloh Christian
  10. Conway


  1. Bryant
  2. Bentonville
  3. North Little Rock
  4. Conway
  5. Cabot


  1. Greenwood
  2. Little Rock Parkview
  3. Lake Hamilton
  4. Sylvan Hills
  5. El Dorado


  1. Pulaski Academy
  2. Wynne
  3. Harrison
  4. Little Rock Christian
  5. Texarkana


  1. Shiloh Christian
  2. Stuttgart
  3. Nashville
  4. Arkadelphia
  5. Joe T. Robinson


  1. Harding Academy
  2. Prescott
  3. Hoxie
  4. McGehee
  5. Rison


  1. Fordyce
  2. Gurdon
  3. Des Arc
  4. Junction City
  5. Bigelow

Rex’s Rankings: After three weeks

Monday, September 16th, 2019

Two of Arkansas’ best teams went out of state and lost on Friday. North Little Rock lost in Shreveport to Baton Rouge Catholic, and Pulaski Academy lost in a 61-47 shootout against Ravenwood from Brentwood, Tenn.

For North Little Rock, it marked the second consecutive defeat following a 37-game winning streak in the regular season. For now, we drop North Little Rock out of the Top 10. Expect the Charging Wildcats to crawl their way back soon.

The most pleasant surprise thus far this season has been Little Rock Central, which moved to 3-0 with a 42-25 victory at Rogers. The Tigers move into the poll at No. 10 overall.

And Scott Reed is off to a great start as head coach at Cabot. The Panthers move up to No. 5 following a 35-14 victory over El Dorado.

Here are the updated rankings:


  1. Bryant
  2. Greenwood
  3. Bentonville
  4. Conway
  5. Cabot
  6. Pulaski Academy
  7. Arkadelphia
  8. Little Rock Christian
  9. Harrison
  10. Little Rock Central


  1. Bryant
  2. Bentonville
  3. Conway
  4. Cabot
  5. Little Rock Central


  1. Greenwood
  2. Searcy
  3. Lake Hamilton
  4. West Memphis
  5. Jonesboro


  1. Pulaski Academy
  2. Little Rock Christian
  3. Harrison
  4. Morrilton
  5. Greenbrier


  1. Arkadelphia
  2. Nashville
  3. Warren
  4. Shiloh Christian
  5. Joe T. Robinson


  1. McGehee
  2. Prescott
  3. Osceola
  4. Rison
  5. Camden Harmony Grove


  1. Fordyce
  2. Hazen
  3. Junction City
  4. Foreman
  5. Dierks

From Norman to Lake Ouachita

Tuesday, March 19th, 2019


What’s now Norman was known as Womble until 1925. It had just 378 residents in the 2010 census, down from a high of 552 people a century earlier.

“The town was created as a result of the building of the Gurdon & Fort Smith Railroad and grew because of the lumber mills that sprang up along its right of way,” Russell Baker writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. “It was once the home of the Presbyterian Church’s Caddo Valley Academy. In 1905, plans were announced to extend the Gurdon & Fort Smith line from Glenwood, then its terminus, to Black Springs in Montgomery County. This announcement brought a large number of land speculators, including Walter E. Womble Sr., into the area.

“In 1907, a dispute over rights of way halted the project near the Caddo River, several miles short of its goal. The Black Springs Lumber Co. abandoned its plans to build a large lumber mill at Black Springs and chose a site at the railhead instead. It was soon joined by the Bear State Lumber Co. In 1907, Walter Womble, taking advantage of the situation, acquired land and staked out a new town in a corn field just north of the railhead. Its post office opened in July 1907 with Womble as postmaster.”

The town of Womble was incorporated in February 1910.

“In 1914, it became the location of the Ouachita National Forest’s Womble Ranger Station,” Baker writes. “In 1915, the citizens of Womble made the first of three unsuccessful attempts to have the county seat moved from Mount Ida to the new community. Walter Womble was the main backer of this proposal. In 1920, the Arkansas Presbyterian Church began an educational mission work, or mountain mission, at Womble under the care of a local minister, Dr. John T. Barr. The next year, a boarding school called Caddo Valley Academy opened to help educate the area’s ‘worthy but needy’ children. In 1924, the academy obtained a 37-acre site at Womble and began construction of a complex of buildings. For many years, the academy was a landmark in southern Montgomery County. During the 1930s, its operations were gradually consolidated with those of the Norman School District.”

Walter Womble was replaced as postmaster in 1922. Residents of the community voted to change the name of the town to Norman in 1925, and Walter Womble moved his family to Fort Smith.

“By the 1930s, most of the prime timber in the area had been cut, and the mills began to move elsewhere,” Baker writes. “A few small sawmills kept the town’s economy going on a reduced scale. Norman’s schools consolidated with those of nearby Caddo Gap in 1971, forming the Caddo Hills School District. In 1982, Norman lost its railroad connection, and its population dropped to 382 in 1990. Now it serves as a bedroom community for workers with employment in larger towns.”

The Norman Library once was listed in the “Guinness Book of World Records” for being the smallest freestanding public library in the country.

“A garden club was founded by a group of local women in 1936,” writes David Sesser of Henderson State University. “One of the first projects of the club was to replace the barbed-wire fence that surrounded the local park and town square with a native stone wall. By 1939, with the help of the Works Progress Administration, the wall was constructed. The club’s crowning achievement came to fruition in 1940 with the establishment of the library in the center of the park. The building was originally constructed to serve as the town’s pumping station, moving water from the Caddo River to the water tower on the other side of town. Measuring 170 square feet, the small building was rarely used. Even city workers infrequently entered the structure.

“Marie Pinkerton, the president and founder of the garden club, approached the city council to inquire about acquiring the use of the building for the establishment of a town library. The council agreed, and the club raised funds to furnish the building. Mission oak shelving was used to house the more than 500 books that the group gathered. Two librarians were hired, and the library opened to the public. It remained open intermittently during the next half century. During this time, it also served as a temporary office and jail. The building is a single-story masonry structure with a gabled roof. It is rectangular and features a Craftsman-style front porch over the northern entrance, while the southern entrance has a simple shed-roof porch. Two nine-paned windows are in both the eastern and western walls of the building.”

A group was organized to restore the structure in the 1990s. The park and the library were placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1993.

“Throughout the 1990s, the library was open five days a week and served the community as the only point of internet access in the surrounding area,” Sesser writes. “Grant money was received to repair the stone wall around the park and to replace the roof of the library building. In 2006, the roof of the library was replaced, but it began leaking almost immediately. The library was closed.”

Near Norman is the CCC Company 741 Powder Magazine Historic District. It consists of two stone-and-concrete structures that were used to store powder and blasting caps used by the Civilian Conservation Corps during its work in the Ouachita National Forest.

“CCC Company 741, the oldest CCC company in the Arkansas District, was formed on May 1, 1933, at Camp Pike and moved to Crystal Springs Camp on May 17, 1933,” writes Arkansas historian Mark Christ. “Four side camps were established from the Crystal Springs Camp, including Crystal Valley Camp near Norman. The magazine structures were constructed to serve Crystal Valley, probably around 1936. The company constructed the powder magazine and blasting cap magazine to store explosives for use on projects such as road and bridge construction.

“The powder magazine is the larger of the two buildings. It sits just north of Forest Service Road 177M, about 370 feet southeast of the small blasting cap magazine, which is a 10-by-10 square building. Both buildings are about five feet high with four-inch-thick concrete tops and concrete floors. The cut-stone and concrete walls are about a foot thick. Though they are of simple, functional design, the structures are noteworthy for their association with the contributions of the CCC. They also are notable for their connection to Company 741.”

On the edge of Norman along the banks of the Caddo River is what’s known as the Caddo Indian Memorial. A quarter-mile path allows hikers to read signs explaining the Caddo culture. Unfortunately, several of the signs have been stolen and others are hard to read as maintenance at the memorial has been minimal through the years. The site was a Caddo burial ground where Huddleston Creek runs into the Caddo River.

“In October 1988, the city of Norman had begun excavation at this site for construction of a sewage treatment plant,” Mary Lysobey writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “Digging was stopped when bones and artifacts were discovered. Subsequent archaeological excavations by Dr. Ann Early of the Arkansas Archeological Survey found evidence of significant Caddo Indian occupation from 1250-1500. Two burials and a small cluster of residential features and artifacts — including two small incised ceramic jars, a large chert biface and eight novaculite arrow points — were uncovered, indicating that Caddo Indians lived on this plot of ground. Earlier residential use of the site left the remains of a large circular house with a hearth and burned floor. Artifacts of the Archaic and Woodland Fourche Maline periods were also discovered.”

Leaders of the Caddo Indian Nation in Oklahoma asked the city of Norman to relocate the plant, and those wishes were followed. The remains and artifacts were reburied. Caddo Chairman Elmo Clark led a religious ceremony on the grounds in April 1989.

“The burial ground was then covered with a hard-to-dig material to thwart future pilfering and pot hunting,” Lysobey writes. “Grass was planted, and a wooden fence was added to keep vehicles off the premises. The city maintained the area, but nothing indicated that the fence encompassed a sacred place. In 2000, the Southern Montgomery County Development Council received a grant from the Arkansas Humanities Council to create and display interpretive historical signage at the Caddo burial ground. … SMCDC funded and provided the labor to construct a pathway, which was made of natural materials as requested by the Caddo Nation. The path and the signs were in place by the summer of 2002.”

We leave Norman and take Arkansas Highway 27 through the Ouachita National Forest to Mount Ida.

Life traditionally was rough in this mountain community. Writing for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas about the years during and immediately following the Civil War, Debbie Baldwin and Betty Prince note: “With so many men away from their farming duties, citizens of Mount Ida began to suffer from inadequate food supplies even in the early stages of the war. In addition to this hardship, Mount Ida had very little protection from renegades such as jayhawkers and bushwhackers.”

The original Montgomery County Courthouse was dismantled in 1873 and replaced with a two-story frame building. A two-story schoolhouse was built in 1893. A short silver mining boom had brought new people to the area in the 1880s.

By 1920, there were nine general stores, a drugstore, two hardware stores, two blacksmith shops, a garage, two sawmills, a cotton gin, a stave mill, a flour mill and three hotels at Mount Ida. The city received national media attention in 1931-32 when its city council consisted only of women.

Mount Ida’s population was only 566 in the 1950 census, but the construction of nearby Lake Ouachita brought new residents. By the 2010 census, the population had almost doubled to 1,076.

The 1923 Montgomery County Courthouse has been on the National Register of Historic Places since 1976.

“The courthouse’s style is often described as Arkansas Adamesque,” Jared Craig writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “Designed by Clyde Ferrel and built in 1923, the courthouse is constructed of random-patterned native stone. The structure’s restrained classical elements are reminiscent of courthouses across Arkansas, including pilasters and a stone arch over the principal entrance. The ceiling of the courtroom is made of pressed tin that has been painted white. As county demands grew, Montgomery County built an additional one-story building in 1975 as a courthouse annex.”

Much as is the case at the Stone County Courthouse in north-central Arkansas, music can be heard on the Montgomery Courthouse grounds on Saturday nights.

Craig writes: “In 2000, some Mount Ida residents started the Montgomery County Front Porch to showcase local musicians and others from around the state. A wooden stage, commonly known as the Front Porch Stage, stands on the outer edge of the square where concertgoers sit on the lawn and listen to music. Performances are free to the public. The music includes bluegrass, country and gospel. A concession stand, called the Back Porch Kitchen, serves refreshments. A sound system was donated by the Florida Power & Light Co. following the community’s warm reception to power crews working on downed lines in the area during an ice storm in December 2000.”

Lake Ouachita, which is the largest lake completely within the borders of Arkansas at more than 40,000 acres, changed this area of the state.

Congress had authorized surveys of the Ouachita River as early as 1870 to see if there were ways to prevent floods and improve navigability.

“Nothing was done until the 1920s when Harvey Couch and his company, Arkansas Power & Light Co., began searching for sites for hydroelectric dams along the Ouachita River,” Guy Lancaster writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “AP&L built Remmel Dam and Carpenter Dam, which were in place by the early 1930s. Plans for a third, larger dam were announced in 1938 for the Blakely Mountain area. It was to be a joint project of AP&L and the federal government, which would fund $6 million and $2 million of the costs respectively. The following year, AP&L sought federal permission to delay the dam’s construction, but the Federal Power Commission terminated the utility’s permit and proceeded by itself.

“Preliminary core drilling was soon carried out, financed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. However, Congress didn’t appropriate any funds until 1946 when $1 million was appropriated to begin construction. Residents of the area that was slated to be inundated had been leaving since the 1930s, and the exodus accelerated as work began. The town of Buckville in Garland County was relocated to high ground, though little remains of it today. The relocation of graves was completed in 1952, and the clearing of the area for the reservoir took place in 1951-52. By 1952, the dam portion of the project was complete and already serving flood-control purposes. Construction on an electric power plant began. The power plant went online, generating its first electric power on July 17, 1955.”

The official dedication of Blakely Mountain Dam occurred on July 4, 1956, with U.S. Sen. John L. McClellan and Congressman William F. Norrell on the program.

“Blakely Mountain Dam is composed of about 4 million cubic yards of earth drawn from the surrounding area,” Lancaster writes. “This material proved to be high in clay content and thus suitable for a dam. It was constructed by Groves, Lundin & Cox, contractors based in Minneapolis, at a final cost of $31 million. The dam is 231 feet tall and 1,100 feet long. The generators in the dam’s power plant are capable of producing 75,000 kilowatt hours of power. Blakely Mountain Dam’s position on the Ouachita River, higher than Remmel and Carpenter dams, lessens the likelihood of those dams facing flood stage.”

The creation of Lake Ouachita State Park as a legal entity occurred in 1955, but the park wasn’t officially established or staffed until 1965. Many of the structures at the park were built in the 1970s. Park improvements since the 1990s have included a visitors’ center, cabins and additional campsites. The park’s location once was known as Three Sisters Springs.

According to the Arkansas Department of Parks & Tourism: “In 1875, homesteader John McFadden claimed that three springs on his property about 12 miles north of Hot Springs possessed healing properties. The springs’ collective name, Three Sisters, reputedly was derived from the fact that McFadden had three daughters. In 1907, W.M. Cecil and his partners bought the property. Cecil later bought out his partners and began developing McFadden’s Three Sisters Springs Resort. By the mid-1930s, its facilities included cottages, a springhouse and a bottling plant. Claiming each spring could cure a different set of diseases, Cecil distributed his bottled World’s Wonder Waters across the country. Analyses have since shown waters from all three springs contain the same elements — such as iron, potassium and sodium — in slightly different proportions.

“After the site underwent another ownership change in 1939, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers acquired it in 1951 in conjunction with its Lake Ouachita construction project. The actual lake was completed in 1952 but wasn’t opened to the general public until 1955 when the nearby power plant was completed. The Corps approached the state that year about establishing the state park to preserve the Three Sisters springs and leased the state 360 acres, including the springs, for park development.”

There are a number of popular commercial ventures along the south side of the lake with access roads off U.S. Highway 270.

There’s Lake Ouachita Shores, the closest of the establishments to Mount Ida. It long was known as Denby Point Lodge & Marina. It offers motel rooms, cabins and a marina.

There’s Crystal Springs Resort, which the Tommy Trantham family (yes that Tommy Trantham, the former Razorback who was a three-time All-Southwest Conference selection at defensive back from 1965-67) operated for many years. Crystal Springs has a marina with a snack bar and gift shop, a restaurant that’s open during the summer months, a motel, several cabins overlooking the marina and a 14-bedroom lodge with meeting facilities.

There’s Brady Mountain Resort, which has a marina with more than 650 slips, a marina store, lakeside lodging and seasonal dining.

There’s Echo Canyon Resort, which long was known as the Spillway Resort & Marina. It also has a marina, lodging and a restaurant.

The largest and fanciest of the private developments along the lake is Mountain Harbor Resort & Spa. It has been owned and operated by the Barnes family since 1955 when Hal Barnes discovered a nice harbor near Hickory Nut Mountain. His son Bill Barnes, who earlier this year was inducted into the Arkansas Tourism Hall of Fame, later took over the operation. Bill is still active, but there’s also a third generation of the family involved in a development that offers not only what the other resorts along the lake offer (marina, lodging, restaurant) but also a full spa, three swimming pools, the most upscale condos on the lake and a large conference center.

The establishment on Lake Ouachita that really takes me back in time is Shangri-La Resort, where I would stay with my family when I was a boy. My father loved to fish for bass and crappie. DeGray Lake, near my hometown of Arkadelphia, had yet to fill up. So we would come to spend weekends at Shangri-La so my dad could fish and I could swim while my mother watched.

Longtime Arkansas food and travel writer Kat Robinson wrote in 2017: “Daniel Maurice and Louise Mowbray Hunter opened the Shangri-La Resort just after Blakely Dam was completed to hold in Lake Ouachita. They started out with six motel rooms and two cabins and expanded through the years. From what I’ve been told, Austin and Varine Carr came on about a month before the resort opened. Austin, as the carpenter, built many of the buildings at the resort. The Carrs became part owners of the resort in 1979 or 1980 and full owners in 2006.

“Varine Carr assisted in the kitchen, eventually taking over the cafe. Though Ida Todd and Rosemary Johnson started the legacy of making delectable pies at Shangri-La, it’s Mrs. Carr who has perfected them and become so well known for them. … It it wasn’t for the modern vehicles parked here and there, it would be hard to discern it from photos from long ago. Postcards from years past show the same idyllic scene — a series of small cabins and a long, single-story motor-court hotel spread along a peninsula into Lake Ouachita; a series of boat docks; lush vegetation of the forest separated from the deep blue waters of the lake by a tan strip of shoreline; the white-and-red aluminum awning that keeps the sun from shining directly into the cafe; the neon tubes over the red-and-white sign denoting the location of the cafe and office. … It’s a nostalgic wander down an asphalt lane to a different time when heading to the lake meant losing complete contact with civilization.”

I’m often asked who has the best homemade pie in Arkansas. The restaurant at Shangri-La gets my vote.

Food Hall of Fame: Take two

Tuesday, March 20th, 2018

Another Arkansas Food Hall of Fame induction ceremony is in the books.

Our state has a diverse food culture that always has been a bit in the shadow of surrounding states. Thankfully, the Department of Arkansas Heritage last year chose to start the Hall of Fame to recognize restaurants, proprietors and even food-themed events.

I’m honored to be on the selection committee and to have been the master of ceremonies for the annual event the past two years. There were 450 nominations submitted this year to our website in all categories. That’s 150 more than last year, a good sign that this effort is growing.

We will induct three restaurants each year into the Hall of Fame.

The choices in our inaugural year were Jones Bar-B-Que Diner of Marianna, the Lassis Inn of Little Rock and Rhoda’s Famous Hot Tamales of Lake Village. I don’t think anyone on the selection committee realized it at the time, but all three of those restaurants are owned by African-Americans. I thought that was justified since blacks have contributed so much to the Arkansas food culture through the years.

The three restaurants chosen this year were Franke’s Cafeteria of Little Rock, the Venesian Inn of Tontitown and McClard’s Bar-B-Q of Hot Springs.

In 1919, C.A. Franke opened a doughnut shop on Capitol Avenue in Little Rock. He built a large bakery on Third Street in 1922 and deployed a fleet of trucks nicknamed “wife-savers” that made home deliveries across the capital city. In 1924, he opened Franke’s Cafeteria near major downtown department stores. Franke’s later expanded to multiple locations across the state. There are two remaining locations, both in Little Rock. One is downtown in the Regions Bank Building and the other is on Rodney Parham Road.

The Venesian Inn is in a community that was settled by Italian immigrants who were escaping the mosquitoes and malaria of the Sunnyside Plantation in southeast Arkansas. Germano Gasparotto opened a restaurant in 1947 and later sold it to fellow Italian-Americans John and Mary Granata. The restaurant and its recipes stayed in the family through the years. The signature dish is fried chicken and spaghetti. I consider that a perfect combination of Arkansas and Italy. Visits to the Venesian Inn have been a tradition for decades of fans attending University of Arkansas football and basketball games in nearby Fayetteville. The restaurant still uses the original wooden tables installed by Gasparotto.

McClard’s history of fine barbecue dates back to 1928 when Alex and Alice McClard were running a motor court and gas station in Hot Springs. A man who had spent the night at the motor court was unable to pay his bill but offered to pay with what he claimed was the recipe for the world’s greatest barbecue sauce. The McClards had no choice but to take him up on his offer. They secured the recipe and began serving it on the goat they were selling to travelers. The goat is long gone, but the sauce is still there for beef and pork. So are fourth-generation family members.

There were nine other finalists this year. I predict that all of them will be inducted at some point. They were:

Bruno’s Little Italy of Little Rock: Italian immigrant brothers Nicola, Gennaro, Vincenzo and Giovanni Bruno all immigrated to this country from Naples through New York’s Ellis Island. They brought with them Italian recipes and cooking skills. Giovanni’s son Vince — who was known as Jimmy — was stationed at Camp Robinson during World War II and returned soon after the war ended to open his first restaurant in the Levy neighborhood of North Little Rock. He was known for spinning pizza dough in view of his customers while singing loudly. His sons Jay, Vince and Gio grew up watching their father work. There have been numerous locations through the decades, but the original recipes still are used at the current location on Main Street in downtown Little Rock.

DeVito’s of Eureka Springs: Since opening the restaurant in 1988, James DeVito has been attracting area residents and tourists with Italian cuisine, fresh trout and locally sourced ingredients. Those who go to Eureka Springs year after year tend to put DeVito’s on their list of must-visit restaurants. I know that’s the case in our family.

Dixie Pig of Blytheville: Since 1923, the Halsell family has been serving up pork barbecue with its famous “pig sandwiches” as they’re called in Blytheville. I’ve previously declared Blytheville as the barbecue capital of Arkansas, and the Dixie Pig is one of the reasons why. Ernest Halsell opened the Rustic Inn in 1923, and the Dixie Pig is a direct descendant of that restaurant. It draws barbecue enthusiasts from Arkansas, Tennessee and the Missouri Bootheel.

Doe’s Eat Place of Little Rock: George Eldridge was a pilot who frequently would fly business clients to Greenville, Miss., to eat at the original Doe’s Eat Place on Nelson Street. In 1988, he convinced the Signa family of Greenville to let him open a downtown Little Rock restaurant using the same name and concept. When Bill Clinton’s presidential campaign staff and the national media began hanging out in Eldridge’s restaurant during the 1992 campaign, the Little Rock location became more famous than the original. The private room behind the kitchen at Doe’s is the place to be for political fundraisers and meetings in the capital city.

Feltner’s Whatta-Burger of Russellville: Please don’t confuse this with that chain that’s based in Corpus Christi, Texas. Bob Feltner opened the doors of this restaurant on Thanksgiving Day in 1967. He earlier had operated other restaurants in the city, including one called the Wonder Burger. But the Whatta-Burger had staying power. Generations of Arkansas Tech University students, along with Razorback fans driving to and from Fayetteville, have kept the lines long at this classic.

Kream Kastle of Blytheville: In 1952, Steven Johns kept the menu simple. He sold hot dogs, hot dogs with chili and hot dogs with chili and onions. By 1955, however, he had added a barbecue pit and was soon serving his own “pig sandwiches.” In fact, it’s those sandwiches that put the restaurant on the map. The debate over which sandwich is better — the one at the Dixie Pig or the one at the Kream Kastle — has gone on for years. Steven’s daughter Suzanne and husband Jeff Wallace now operate the drive-in.

Neal’s Cafe of Springdale: Housed in a landmark pink building, Neal’s has become more than just a restaurant through the years. It’s a center of the community; a place that draws people together and engages them in conversation. The restaurant was opened by Toy and Bertha Neal in 1944, and the Neal family has owned the business through four generations. Local business owners meet for breakfast and discuss community issues there. At lunch and dinner, people drive from throughout northwest Arkansas for entrees such a chicken fried steak with gravy and chicken and dumplings.

Ed Walkers Drive In of Fort Smith: Anyone who grew up in Fort Smith can tell you about Ed Walker’s. It opened in 1946 and was soon thriving thanks to the car-crazy culture of the 1950s. Even the sign out front that advertises “French dipped sandwiches” is a classic. Visitors also can’t go wrong with burgers and pie in a place that harkens back to Fort Smith’s roots as a tough, blue-collar town where the food was simple and served in large portions.

White House Cafe of Camden: This is the oldest continuously operating restaurant in the state. A Greek immigrant named Hristos Hodjopulas opened the White House near the railroad depot in 1907. Camden was booming in those days, and the restaurant was soon operating 24 hours a day. It just serves lunch and dinner these days. There’s everything on the menu from Southern classics to Tex-Mex food. Original furnishings remain. It’s like stepping back in time.

A new category this year was the Gone But Not Forgotten category.

The winner was Cotham’s Mercantile of Scott. Cotham’s long run ended when a fire broke out early on a Tuesday morning in May of last year. It destroyed the century-old building that hung out over Horseshoe Lake. The structure had once housed a general store that served farmers in a thriving area of cotton plantations and pecan orchards.

In 1984, the store began serving lunch and became a favorite of then-U.S. Sen. David Pryor. It was Pryor who first told me about Cotham’s in the late 1980s when I was covering Washington for the Arkansas Democrat. I made the trip to Scott for the famous hubcap burger on my next visit to Arkansas. I instantly was hooked by the place that used the motto “where the elite meet to eat.”

In 1999, Cotham’s in the City opened at the corner of Third and Victory streets near the state Capitol. The building once had housed the capital city’s first fern bar (yes, they were all the rage in the 1970s), a TGI Friday’s. During the years I spent working in the governor’s office, I made frequent walks down the hill for lunch at the Little Rock location. The menu was the same, but there’s nothing quite like sitting near farmers on the banks of an oxbow lake at Scott. There are no plans to rebuild the Scott location.

The other three finalists in the Gone But Not Forgotten category were Coy’s of Hot Springs, Jacques & Suzanne of Little Rock and Klappenbach Bakery of Fordyce.

As soon as I looked down from the podium and saw the tears in Coy Theobalt’s eyes, I knew this new category meant a great deal. Coy’s burned down in January 2009 on the eve of the thoroughbred race meet at Oaklawn Park. Theobalt grew up watching his parents operate the restaurant, which opened in 1945.

“It was seven days a week for them with no vacations,” he said. “It convinced me that I didn’t want to do it. It means a lot to our family to see that so many people have fond memories of the restaurant.”

Family members came from multiple states to see Coy’s honored. Growing up in Arkadelphia, Hot Springs was the place my family went to celebrate birthdays, anniversaries and the like. My late father’s three favorite Hot Springs restaurants — Coy’s, Mrs. Miller’s and Mollie’s — are all gone.

I sometimes was allowed to tag along with my parents for anniversary dinners. When I think of Coy’s, I remember valet parking, Mountain Valley Water in big green bottles, booths with the names of certain families attached to them (I aspired to have a booth named after me one day, a goal I never achieved) and warm crackers dipped in house dressing. If it were during the Oaklawn race meet, you could expect a long wait before being seated in the restaurant at 300 Coy St., just off Grand Avenue.

With the opening of Jacques & Suzanne in 1975 atop what’s now the Regions Bank Building in downtown Little Rock, the Continental Cuisine team of Paul Bash, Ed Moore, Louis Petit and Denis Seyer set the stage for other quality restaurants such as Graffiti’s, Restaurant 1620, the Purple Cow and Alouette’s. Their former employees opened additional establishments such as Andre’s and Cafe St. Moritz.

It’s fair to say that Jacques & Suzanne took dining out in Arkansas to a new level. Arkansans accustomed to pork barbecue and fried catfish learned about escargot, caviar and souffles. The dishes were prepared by classically trained chefs, and the kitchen served as a sort of graduate school for those working there. It wasn’t an accident that Bash, Moore, Petit and Seyer won the Proprietor of the Year award during the first Arkansas Food Hall of Fame induction ceremony last year. Jacques & Suzanne closed in 1986, but its influence remains strong more than three decades later.

Often when a place that I consider an Arkansas classic closes, it’s because the owners are tired. As Theobalt noted, it’s a tough business. Klappenbach Bakery is an example of that. The bakery and restaurant, which for 36 years graced the downtown of the Dallas County seat, closed in September 2011. After iconic college football coach Paul “Bear” Bryant, it was one of the best-known things to come out of Fordyce.

There are certain places that come to define a town. Klappenbach was one of those places. Norman Klappenbach was 80 and his wife Lee was 77 at the time of the closure. Son Paul, who was 47 at the time, grew up in the business and spent the seven years prior to the closure working full time there. He came in at 3 a.m. and said the 65-hour workweeks had depleted his energy. He had been unable to find an assistant baker.

When the hard-working owners of such establishments die or retire, there’s often no one to take their place. The children have no interest in long hours and limited revenues. Buyers can be hard to find, especially in rural areas that are losing population. Once they’re gone, they’re gone for good.

El Dorado to Camden

Tuesday, December 26th, 2017


A few oil wells are visible as we make our way north out of El Dorado on Arkansas Highway 7.

By 1925, there were almost 3,500 wells in Union County pumping 69 million barrels of oil. Production declined significantly by the late 1930s.

We’re on a divided, four-lane portion of the highway. It’s easy to speed on this stretch, which passes near Norphlet and touches the outskirts of Smackover.

There are small, rolling hills and millions of pine trees.

“The forested hills of Union County were thinly populated until after the Civil War and Reconstruction,” Steven Teske writes for the online Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. “The railroad industry, combined with the timber industry, brought new life to the area. The St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railway built a line running from Gurdon through El Dorado that was completed in January 1891. Norphlet was one of several depots created along the railway. The timber industry was prominent in the settlement of Norphlet for the first 30 years of its existence.

“The town was reportedly named for Nauphlet Goodwin, but the name Nauphlet was misspelled as Norphlet by the Postal Department when the town’s post office was created in 1891. Norphlet was actually the third name selected for the small settlement. Its post office was first designated Haymos and then Jess before becoming Norphlet, all in the same year.”

The oil boom changed everything.

Employees of Oil Operators Trust struck a pocket of natural gas on May 14, 1922. The gas began to escape at a rate of 65 million to 75 million cubic feet per day.

“Efforts to cap the hole were ineffective, and on the morning of May 16, the gas ignited, shooting flames more than 300 feet into the air and creating a crater at least 450 feet across and 75 feet deep,” Teske writes. “The explosion and fire, which demolished the oil derrick, sent fragments of shale up to 10 miles away from Norphlet. A second well, drilled a few weeks later in an effort to reduce the fuel supply of the fire, also caught fire and created a second crater. But the oil industry continued to thrive in Union County as the Smackover Field was successfully tapped in other locations.

“Many oil workers came to Norphlet and the other communities of the area, and hotels, taverns and other businesses quickly arose. Prostitution and gambling were prevalent, and law enforcement only gradually began to establish order in the region. … The population fluctuated at first but became more stable when the MacMillan Oil Refinery was established in the city. The oil refinery closed in 1987. The property was bought by Nor-Ark Industrial Corp. but was abandoned in 1991. Oil had contaminated surrounding waters, leading the Environmental Protection Agency to clean up the site through its national Superfund program. The cleanup was completed in 1997.”

And what about that crater from 1922?

It’s filled with water and surrounded by a fence. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2008.

Norphlet’s population fell from 1,063 residents in the 1930 census to 459 in 1960. It was back up to 844 by 2010 with many residents driving into El Dorado for work.

Nearby Smackover, meanwhile, fell from 2,544 residents in the 1930 census to 1,865 in the 2010 census.

The Smackover Field, which covers 68 square miles, led the nation in oil output in 1925.

“The name Smackover is possibly derived from chemin couvert (meaning covered way), though later histories attribute the name to an 18th-century French description of the north and south-central areas of Union and Ouachita counties dubbed sumac couvert, meaning covered with sumac,” writes local historian Don Lambert.

Prior to the discovery of oil, the economy in this area of the state was dominated by cotton farming and a timber industry that moved in to clear the virgin forests.

A post office designated as Smackover opened in 1879 about five miles from the town’s current location. An unincorporated town named Henderson City sprung up along the railroad that ran from Camden to Alexandria, La. The Smackover post office moved there, and the community became known as Smackover.

“By 1908, Sidney Albert Umsted operated a large sawmill and logging venture two miles north of town,” Lambert writes. “He believed that oil lay beneath the earth’s surface in the region. Few paid attention, but Umsted quietly went about buying land and leasing what was not for sale. An economic blockbuster was about to alter the destiny of a town and its people. In July 1922, Umsted’s wildcat well reached a depth of 2,066 feet. Abruptly, a rumble came from deep beneath the earth’s surface. The crew stepped away, listening. Suddenly, a thick black column of oil burst forth and spurted high above the earth.

“Within six months, 1,000 wells had been drilled with a success rate of 92 percent. The little town had increased from a mere 90 people to 25,000, and its uncommon name would quickly attain national attention. Smackover was officially incorporated on Nov. 3, 1922. Lawlessness was so rampant that, among the 25 petitioners on the incorporation document, none was willing to hold public office. Later that month, the town saw a multi-day riot of unbridled violence. The town’s population steadily declined as oil companies and their employees moved away when more lucrative oil discoveries were made in Texas and Oklahoma. About 100 independent oil companies replaced the 12 major petroleum corporations in this period.”

The population dropped from 25,000 to 2,500, and an environmental disaster was left behind.

Exploration and drilling increased again during World War II due to heavy demand. The oil industry is still active here, though most operators are small.

Umsted, known as the “Father of the Smackover Oil Field,” had been born in Texas in 1876. His father abandoned the family, and his mother moved her children back to her native Chidester in Ouachita County when Sid Umsted was a boy. She remarried when her son was 8, and the family headed to north Louisiana and settled on a farm near Bernice. Umsted worked in sawmills across north Louiana as a teenager. He owned a sawmill near Homer by the time he was 22 and later moved his operations to Junction City on the Arkansas-Louisiana line. He moved farther north to the Smackover area in 1905.

“His mill served as the primary source of employment in an otherwise undeveloped economic area,” Don Lambert and John Ragsdale write for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “He immediately purchased and leased several hundred acres of land north into Ouachita County with the bulk of it situated in what’s now recognized as the Standard-Umsted/Snow Hill locale. In 1919, oil was discovered in northern Louisiana. Umsted was familiar with the area and recognized that his Arkansas land embodied surface characteristics similar to the acreage that spawned the prolific Homer oil field. By 1921, successful oil discoveries were made in the El Dorado region only 12 miles south of Smackover. Umsted quickly organized an exploration venture that included four partners from Camden — W.W. Brown, T.J. Gaughan, J.D. Reynolds and J.C. Usery, who shared a half-interest with the V.K.F. Oil Co. of Shreveport, which agreed to drill one well for a small share.”

The July 1922 gusher and subsequent discoveries made Umsted and his partners wealthy.

The area around Umsted’s sawmill was purchased in 1923 by the Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey. A small community still goes by the unusual name of Standard-Umsted. Now a millionaire, Umsted built a mansion in Camden in 1924 that still stands. In October 1925, a train on which Umsted was riding derailed in Mississippi. He died Nov. 3, 1925, in a Memphis hospital at the age of just 49.

As we drive along Highway 7 talking about the area’s fascinating history, I want to know more about that November 1922 Smackover riot.

Nancy Snell Griffith writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas: “A hooded and robed cleanup committee — possibly members of the Ku Klux Klan or some related group — rode through the Smackover oil fields in order to drive away ‘undesirable’ people such as saloon owners and gamblers. The vigilantes killed at least one person, shot at others and destroyed buildings. There were widespread reports of floggings and even cases of people being tarred and feathered.

“This multi-day riot mirrored other vigilante actions in the newly established oil fields in Arkansas. The previous February, the citizens of El Dorado had formed a Law Enforcement League for the same purpose. … On Nov. 27, more than 200 masked and robed men drove through Smackover in cars, carrying signs that warned ‘gamblers and others of the lawless element’ to leave the area within 24 hours.”

The incident received nationwide attention. The New York Times reported that the Nov. 24 murder of a worker named Ed Cox had led to the events. The Arkansas Gazette reported that there also was a murder the next night of a driller named Cotton Parsons outside a bar in the Smackover Field settlement of Patagonia.

Some newspapers ran sensational reports that couldn’t be verified.

The Seattle Star said that “2,000 bootleggers, dive keepers and gamblers are aligned against the vigilantes in a skirmish, which first flared last night and raged for hours.”

The Washington Times┬áreported that a mob of 200 “white-robed and masked men” had taken on gamblers and oil workers in “one of the most spectacular engagements ever noted in this section.”

Some newspapers reported incorrectly that as many as 75 people had been killed or wounded. The New York Times later reported that one man had been killed with four injured and five tarred and feathered.

One thing is clear. Large numbers of the so-called undesirables began leaving the area after these events.

“By Nov. 30, about 1,100 had departed by train from nearby Camden,” Griffith writes. “Although there were rumors that they were gathering in Union County to seek their revenge, Ouachita County authorities assured residents that there would be no more trouble. On Dec. 1, the Arkansas Gazette reported that Sheriff Ed Harper had returned to Camden after touring the oil fields. He found no sign of further trouble and reported that ‘the undesirable element seems to have been thoroughly cleaned out.’

“Smackover constable Hampton Lewis and local bank cashier O.B. Gordon ‘deplored the publicity given the raids, merely a repetition of events which had occurred in all new oil fields.'”

The Arkansas Gazette finally reported that the only death that could be attributed to the vigilantes was that of E.J. Wood at a settlement known as Ouachita City.

Griffith writes: “Unmasked members of the vigilance committee approached what they believed to be a gambling house, supposedly owned by Wood and Slim Sanders. Upon their arrival, Wood ran out the door. Committee members told him to halt, and he was shot when he refused. Wood was initially reported tarred and feathered, but this was later proven false. The house itself was burned down by the committee. According to recently elected sheriff J.B. Newton, all reports of a pitched battle, tarring and feathering and burned buildings were highly exaggerated; most of the gunshots had been fired into the air, and Sanders’ building had been torn down.”

The New York Times said that at least 400 of the reported 2,000 vigilantes were on the payroll of oil companies. Other sources said the size of the vigilante group was only about 200.

Griffith writes: “No one was ever arrested for the murder of E.J. Wood. The coroner’s jury met and found that he had died at the hands of persons unknown.”

Our trip along Highway 7 takes us right by one of the best places to learn more about this colorful period in south Arkansas history, the Arkansas Museum of Natural Resources. In 1975, area civic leaders and legislators began campaigning for a museum. In 1977, the Arkansas Legislature levied a tax on oil production in Arkansas to fund construction of a museum. Two years later, the Legislature levied a tax on brine, from which bromine is extracted. Bromine is used for making pesticides, flame retardants, medicines and other products.

The project gained additional momentum in 1980 when Jack Turner of El Dorado donated 19 acres near Smackover for the museum. The Arkansas Oil and Brine Museum opened in May 1986. It was renamed the Arkansas Museum of Natural Resources in 1997.

The museum is operated by the Arkansas Department of Parks & Tourism, which describes it this way: “The 25,000-square-foot exhibition center includes vintage photographs; an auditorium that features two videos; a Center of the Earth exhibit that visitors enter through a circular corridor depicting rock strata in the earth; a geologic time scale and fossil exhibit explaining how oil is formed; metal-cast and life-size roughnecks working an oil derrick; exhibits on family life in the oil fields; dozens of vintage automobile gasoline pumps and petroleum company signs; exhibits on life in the area before the boom; and exhibits on modern drilling techniques.

“A high-tech elevator takes visitors through time from a Jurassic period sea floor to the Industrial Revolution. An adjoining exhibit focuses on the evolution of oil consumption from 1922 through modern times. From this exhibit, visitors can peer from a replica of the Rogerson Hotel’s second-floor veranda overlooking a re-created, boom-era street scene in Smackover. The scene, which can also be explored on the first floor, includes numerous storefronts, a jail, a newspaper office, mannequins in period dress and vintage automobiles.

“Outside, the center’s Oilfield Park features operating examples of the oil-producing technology employed from the 1920s through today. The park contains a 112-foot wooden derrick similar to the one at the original Busey No. 1 Well in El Dorado. For those wanting to see an active oil field, the museum’s staff has prepared maps for either six- or 15-mile driving tours of the Smackover Field that reveal remnants of early production such as salt flats. The field is located just north of the museum.”

As we drive north, we cross into Ouachita County, passing through the community of Elliott on our way to Camden on the Ouachita River.