Archive for the ‘Traveling Arkansas’ Category

To the Cossatot and back

Friday, March 15th, 2019

SECOND IN A SERIES

There’s not much traffic on Arkansas Highway 84 as we head west through the northern part of Pike County, passing through the communities of Lodi and Langley.

At Langley, we head north up Arkansas Highway 369 to check out the Albert Pike Recreation Area on the Little Missouri River. During the night of June 10-11, 2010, a flash flood along the river killed 20 people. The river rose more than 20 feet in less than four hours. Dozens of other campers were rescued by emergency workers. I remember that I was getting out of the car in Memphis, where I had gone with friends to watch the St. Jude Classic professional golf tournament, when I heard the stunning news from back home on the radio.

“We started hearing children and women screaming and crying,” Crystel Hofer, who was asleep in her cabin, told reporters the next day. “So we went to the door and opened it, and they were trying to come up the hill to where our cabin was to escape the rising water. Within 10 minutes, the water rose and campers were floating down.”

The force of the water was so great that it overturned recreational vehicles and peeled asphalt off the roads. Most people were asleep when the flooding began.

The Little Missouri River in the area was at 3 feet that Thursday morning. After 7.6 inches of rain fell overnight, it was at 23.5 feet by Friday morning as National Guard helicopters flew over the area to survey the damage. A refrigerated truck was brought in to serve as a temporary morgue.

The U.S. Forest Service closed the campground and hasn’t allowed camping there since the flood. In May 2012, portions of the recreational site were reopened for day use. This stretch of the Little Missouri remains popular with hikers and those just wishing to picnic along the river, though it would be nice if the Forest Service did a bit more to clean up the grounds. I’ve been told that things are left in such disrepair in order to discourage people from trying to break the rules and camp out.

Starting here at Albert Pike, when the water is at the right level, canoeists can float 20 miles to the U.S. Highway 70 bridge near where the river runs into Lake Greeson.

The Little Missouri River begins in Polk County and flows to the southeast through Montgomery and Pike counties. The lower part of the river below Lake Greeson forms parts of the borders of Pike, Hempstead, Nevada, Clark and Ouachita counties before the river empties into the Ouachita River.

After walking around, we head back down Highway 369, take a right and continue west on Highway 84.

We’re soon in the northeast corner of Howard County. Like Pike County, Howard is a county with the Gulf Coastal Plain in the south and the Ouachita Mountains in the north. It was carved out of parts of Pike, Polk, Hempstead and Sevier counties in 1873.

The population of Howard County was 13,789 in the 2010 census, fewer people than had lived there a century before. The county had 16,898 residents in the 1910 census.

The highest population recorded was 18,565 people in the 1920 census. The county bottomed out in 1960 when there were 10,878 residents.

“This decline, combined with the hardships of the Great Depression, made life difficult for many residents,” Lauren White writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. “Peaches became a big export in the early 20th century. The enterprises started with small farm plots having a few acres of land and evolved into a big-time industry. In 1915, Ozark Fruit Growers Association shipped 700 carloads of peaches. The peach industry became less prominent in the 1950s, and orchards eventually were converted from commercial ventures to pick-your-own operations.”

The last bale of cotton ginned in Howard County was in 1971 at Mineral Springs as timber management, poultry production and cattle grazing took over.

Highway 84 runs into U.S. Highway 278 at Umpire. I head west on 278 so I can spend some time at the wonderful visitors’ center at Cossatot River State Park-Natural Area.

The Cossatot River begins southeast of Mena and flows south through Howard and Sevier counties before emptying into the Little River north of Ashdown. The upper part of the river is considered one of the top whitewater streams in this part of the country.

“The area along the Cossatot River, especially in the Ouachita Mountains, remained sparsely populated until the 20th century,” Guy Lancaster writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “The hills weren’t amenable to large-scale agriculture, and only the southern portion of the river below an area dubbed Three Chutes proved useful for transportation, though the stream would on occasion dry up.”

Cossatot River State Park-Natural Area conserves a 12-mile section of the Ouachita Mountains along the river, which has been designated in its upper reaches as a National Wild and Scenic River. There are more than 30 rare plant and animal species in the park.

According to the state Department of Parks & Tourism: “The idea of establishing a natural area along the upper Cossatot surfaced in 1974, shortly after the Arkansas Environmental Preservation Commission was created. The panel later was renamed the Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission. In October 1975, its staff contacted the Weyerhaeuser Co., which owned the land, to discuss acquiring the Cossatot Falls area and other portions of the Cossatot’s corridor. In January 1976, the commission presented a written proposal to Weyerhaeuser. While generally positive, the company’s response was tempered by concerns about the commission’s ability to oversee such an intensively used public recreation area. It’s used by floaters, campers, hikers and swimmers. The Cossatot River is famous for its Class IV and V rapids.

“By 1984, the Arkansas Department of Parks & Tourism had joined the effort, and the two agencies prepared a joint proposal that addressed Weyerhaeuser’s concerns about the state’s ability to manage the property. Once a tentative sale agreement was reached, the Natural Heritage Commission asked the Arkansas field office of the Nature Conservancy to assist with negotiations and acquisition. The conservancy agreed to acquire and hold in trust the acreage identified for the proposed park/natural area until funding was available for state purchase of the land.”

On Nov. 19, 1987, the state Parks, Recreation and Travel Commission held at joint meeting with the Natural Heritage Commission. At that meeting, Gov. Bill Clinton announced that the state would join with the Nature Conservancy to acquire land along the river.

The Nature Conservancy acquired title to 4,144 acres on Dec. 23, 1987. Management responsibility was transferred to the state in July 1988, and a cooperative management plan was developed between the Parks & Tourism Department and the Natural Heritage Commission.

In 1990, Arkla Gas Co. acquired 160 acres in the Brushy Creek area and donated it to the park to compensate for crossing the park with a 36-inch gas line. Additional land acquisitions have increased the size of the park to 5,300 acres.

Using money from Amendment 75 to the Arkansas Constitution, which was approved by voters in November 1996, the state constructed a 16,304-square-foot visitors’ center. The center was dedicated on Oct. 21, 2004. It has a gallery of interpretive exhibits, two classrooms, an elevated wildlife viewing area, a gift shop and administrative offices.

After spending some time at the visitors’ center, we double back to Glenwood.

From there, we take Arkansas Highway 8 to Caddo Gap and Norman.

We cross from Pike County into Montgomery County soon after leaving Glenwood.

Montgomery County had only 9,487 residents in the 2010 census, far below the 12,455 who lived there a century earlier. Still, that’s well above the 5,370 residents recorded in the 1960 census.

The Ouachita, Caddo and Little Missouri rivers all pass through this sparsely populated county, which has the most registered sites on the Arkansas Archeological Survey site database.

“Modern historians no longer believe that Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto fought the Tula Indians in Caddo Gap, but the inscription on a nine-foot Indian statue erected there in 1936 by the Arkansas History Commission holds to an earlier viewpoint,” Mary Lysobey writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas.

The first recorded non-Indian settlers came to the area in 1812 when Martin and Mary Belle Collier from Kentucky began clearing land near what’s now Caddo Gap.

“Granville Whittington arrived in 1835, chopping out a road along the ridges from Hot Springs to his farm home across the South Fork of the Ouachita River about a mile north of the community of Montgomery,” Lysobey writes. “In 1837, he opened a general store that drew customers from the surrounding wilderness. In June 1842, he opened the Mount Ida post office from his home. Farther west on the Ouachita River, the community of Oden had its beginnings in 1849 when a wagon train wintered there and decided to stay.

“Montgomery County, named for Gen. Richard Montgomery, who died during the Revolutionary War, was included in land claimed by Spain and then France before becoming American property in 1803 as part of the Louisiana Purchase. … Arkansas was designated a territory in 1819, and Hot Spring County was created out of Clark County in 1829. Montgomery County and its county seat, Montgomery, were organized on Dec. 9, 1842, out of Hot Spring County. The earliest surviving records of Montgomery County are dated July 1845.”

The name of Montgomery was changed to Salem in July 1850 and then changed to Mount Ida in October 1850 to match the name on Whittington’s post office.

“Mount Ida was incorporated in 1854,” Lysobey writes. “In 1889, more than two-thirds of the county was still public land. Political maneuvers in 1873 and 1917 gave the Bear, Cedar Glades, Hickory Station, Crystal Springs and Buckville communities to Garland County. Montgomery County’s current borders were finalized in 1925.”

Caddo Gap began to thrive with the coming of the railroad in 1905. The county’s population reached an all-time high in 1910 because of the many lumber camps in the area. Foresters cut the virgin timber and shipped it out on the railroad.

“In 1918, the Caddo River Lumber Co. had begun a survey for building a railroad out of Womble (now Norman), but it took four years for the 15-mile main line to be completed to the Mauldin logging camp, the county’s logging center,” Lysobey writes. “In 1936, a commissary and post office served Mauldin’s 300 people. In 1937, Mauldin was dismantled and carried off by rail. The lumber company, picking up its tracks as it left, had depleted the virgin timber. This, together with the Great Depression, had a devastating economic impact on the county.”

When President Theodore Roosevelt created the Arkansas National Forest in 1907 (later renamed the Ouachita National Forest), much of it was cutover land that hadn’t been replanted.

“Priorities included curbing timber theft and wildfires and setting up ranger outposts with telephones,” Lysobey writes. “Stands of trees were upgraded by enforcement of rules for selective cutting. Sixty-three percent of the county ultimately became national forest land as bankrupt farmers and lumber companies sold their land. The Little Fir and Big Fir communities died but have been resurrected as popular recreation areas on Lake Ouachita.”

At the time Roosevelt created the national forest through an executive order, Gifford Pinchot, the head of the Forest Service, noted that it was the only major shortleaf pine forest under the protection of the federal government. The 1911 Weeks Law, which authorized the federal purchase of forest lands in areas other than the American West, was used to add thousands of acres of cutover land to the national forest. Some of the largest increases occurred from 1933-41 as struggling Arkansas farmers moved out of the state.

The national forest now consists of almost 1.8 million acres in 12 Arkansas counties and two Oklahoma counties. It is the largest and oldest national forest in the South.

Workers from the Civilian Conservation Corps and the Works Progress Administration built a number of facilities in Montgomery County during the Great Depression. The timber began to grow back, and local farmers gave up on trying to grow cotton in these rocky hills. They instead turned to cattle and poultry to make a living.

“George A. Jackson Jr. had left Mount Ida with his parents during the Great Depression,” Lysobey writes. “He used the G.I. Bill to further his education. Returning to Mount Ida in 1954, he became one of the first poultry farmers and was instrumental in getting farmers throughout the county to irrigate and fertilize farmland to increase crop yield. By combining cattle and chickens, farmers were finally able to make a living off the land. By the 1960s, the county’s population had stopped its descent, aided by the influx of senior citizens retiring near Lake Ouachita.

“Most miners lost money speculating on silver, gold and copper, but the first quartz mining claim in 1904 was a portent. Mining increased during World War II because suitable quartz for oscillators for radio communication was found at Fisher Mountain. Exploration proved that crystal veins were present at any depth in the right rock type. Mount Ida, in the middle of one of the few areas on earth having quartz crystal worth mining, is touted as the Quartz Crystal Capital of the World. In 1987, about 44,000 pounds were produced. The current mining of 6,000 pounds a year is geared to tourists.”

I loved traveling with my father when I was a boy as he sold athletic supplies to school districts across the state. If it were a warm spring day, Caddo Gap was a favorite stop. He would let me wade in the Caddo River, and we would visit the Indian statue.

By the 1830s, Caddo Gap had a gristmill, several stores, a Methodist church and a toll bridge.

“In 1863, Confederate Gen. Albert Pike arrived and purchased a nearby tract of land,” Hattie Felton writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “Local tradition states that Pike built a two-story house and lived in the quiet community, reading and writing for almost a year. He left suddenly in 1864, fleeing bushwhackers who destroyed his home. After the Civil War, the post office officially changed its name from Centreville to Caddo Gap. The population grew to several hundred when the railroad came to Montgomery County. The community added a newspaper, a bank, hotels, a cotton gin, blacksmith shops, a school and a sawmill.”

Only about 100 people now live in the unincorporated community.

Post to Twitter

From Arkadelphia to Glenwood

Thursday, March 7th, 2019

FIRST IN A SERIES

It doesn’t take long to leave the Gulf Coastal Plain and enter the foothills of the Ouachita Mountains once you leave Arkadelphia and head west on Arkansas Highway 8.

We’ve decided to spend an entire Saturday poking around the Ouachitas.

When a community has a name like Alpine, you know you’re in the mountains.

“William Glover and his family, the first settlers of the area, arrived in 1848 in what would become Alpine, followed by several other families,” Jacob Worthan writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. “It’s most commonly thought that the settlement received its name due to its location on the highest point in Clark County. However, several folktales also relay origins of the name. The original settlement was a mile east of the present community and was comprised of little more than a post office, a general store, a saloon and a few houses.

“According to ‘Goodspeed’s Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Southern Arkansas,’ Alpine had about 50 inhabitants in 1890 and a post office, a general store, a hotel, a church that also served as a schoolhouse and a blacksmith shop.”

The first post office had opened in 1849. It closed after the Civil War and then was reopened in 1869.

The Works Progress Administration built a school building at Alpine in 1940. It was used until the 1957-58 school year.

The trip west through the rolling forests — which also features cattle pastures, plenty of chicken houses and some aging peach orchards — brings us to Amity, which had a population of 723 residents (fewer than it had a century before when there were 813 people living there) in the 2010 census.

A group of pioneer families led by William F. Browning began settling this area near the Caddo River in 1847.

“An abundance of water and rich bottomland drew them to the area,” Russell Baker writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “Soon after his arrival, Browning built a two-story log house just west of Caney Creek. It soon became the center of an expanding community. According to Laura Scott, an early Clark County historian, Browning named his settlement Amity because he hoped to find it in ‘peace and brotherhood.’ In August 1848, Browning and a group of local citizens formed what would become the Bethel Missionary Baptist Church, the first religious organization in the area. He built a large log church, which also served as Amity’s school. … The Amity post office was established nearby a few months later.”

Another sign that this is an upland part of the state is the fact that loyalties were sharply divided here during the Civil War. There was a strong Union sentiment in the hill country of Arkansas.

“After the war, the center of the community shifted to the south side of the Caddo River in an area that was first settled in about 1850 by John Hays Allen and a physician and Methodist minister named Amariah Biggs,” Baker writes. “Shortly afterward, the Amity post office was relocated to this area.”

By 1870, there was a store at the current location of Amity that was run by a Connecticut native named Philander Curtis. Baker describes him as “an old bachelor who wore a wig and kept a pet bear.”

Curtis, Riley Thompson and Jacob Lightsey purchased property from Allen in 1871 and laid out a town around a public square. A schoolhouse was built in the early 1870s, and the Amity Male and Female Academy operated from 1877-83. The rumor that gold had been discovered in the hills led to a short gold rush in 1887. Amity’s population grew from 140 in 1880 to 211 in 1890. A railroad was built through the area in 1900.

“The little town became a shipping and trade center,” Baker writes. “Large sawmills in nearby Rosboro and Glenwood provided employment for its labor force. The Bank of Amity was formed in 1905, and its old brick offices are now on the National Register of Historic Places. … In the years leading up to World War II, the worldwide shortage of cinnabar created a mining industry in the nearby Ouachita Mountains. However, with the end of the war and an increase in the world supply, the mines were abandoned.”

Continuing west on Highway 8, we leave Clark County and enter the northeast corner of Pike County. We find ourselves along the banks of the Caddo River at Glenwood. The Caddo has long defined this part of Arkansas.

“For centuries, this unique waterway has carved its way through sedimentary rock formations, creating a broad, shallow river valley and leaving miles of gravel along its path,” Brian Westfall writes for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. “In some places, the nearly vertical beds of sandstone and novaculite create rapids. The Caddo, known for extremely clear water, originates from cold-water springs southeast of Mena. In this region, the springs flow from the Bigfork Chert Ridge, which sits atop the Ouachita Mountains Aquifer, known for its water quality. Bigfork Chert Ridge is often referred to as the Potato Hills due to uneven weathering that has left it looking like a potato patch.

“The stream flows generally from west to east through the Ouachita National Forest. After leaving the national forest, the Caddo meanders its way through the Athens Plateau, where the Corps of Engineers impounds it at DeGray Lake. From the base of DeGray Dam, the Caddo continues its trek southeasterly some seven miles before joining the Ouachita River.”

I’m biased since I grew up in this part of the state, but the Caddo has long been one of my favorite rivers. It’s an easy stream to fall in love with.

“Towering sycamore, sweet gum, cottonwood, ash, water oak, willow oak and river birch line the banks,” Westfall writes. “During the summer, cardinal flower, composites and other wildflowers give the river banks a colorful look. The woodlands are interspersed with pastoral settings. An old logging railroad tram parallels the river at times and gives it an added flavor. Deer, beaver, river otter, wild turkey, osprey and bald eagles are present. The Caddo Gap to Glenwood section is the most popular among canoeists. Generally, this section can be floated except during the very driest weather.”

While most other towns south of Little Rock were losing population in the early 2000s, Glenwood did well. Its population increased from 1,751 in 2000 to 2,228 in 2010. Growth slowed after 2010 with the closing of the Curt Bean Lumber Co. mill. The mill reopened under new ownership in 2017. The current population of Glenwood is about 2,100.

Construction of the Gurdon & Fort Smith Railroad through the area in the early 1900s had opened up its pine forests for harvest by wealthy families from Texas, Missouri and other states.

“In its wake, a number of new communities, most destined to be the location of large lumber mills, sprang up,” Baker writes. “Among these were Graysonia in Clark County; Rosboro and Glenwood in Pike County; and Caddo Gap and Womble in Montgomery County. In 1907, the Caddo River Lumber Co., led by Thomas Rosborough, built a large mill a few miles north of Amity at a site named Rosboro. Soon, a second company, the A.L. Clark Lumber Co. from Gilmore, Texas, purchased a former cotton field across the river from the village of Rock Creek and began construction of an even larger sawmill. It was a short distance from a newly opened railroad depot. About the same time, another timber company moved into the area from Louisiana.

“With these new mills under construction and the railroad in full operation, two local businessmen, Curt Hays and Will Fagan, laid out a new town on both sides of the depot. The business lots sold quickly, and a boomtown grew almost overnight. Because of the beautiful location of the new community, Glenwood was chosen for a name. By July 1907, Glenwood, with a population of about 250, had a post office. It replaced the post office at Rock Creek.”

Glenwood was incorporated in 1908. Its population increased from 768 in the 1910 census to 891 in the 1920 census to 1,310 in the 1930 census.

“In 1914, Glenwood received an additional economic boost when the Memphis, Dallas & Gulf Railroad opened tracks between Glenwood and Hot Springs, making the town a major rail junction as well as one of the centers of the lumber industry in the southern Ouachita Mountains,” Baker writes. “By 1916, the community included several churches, a number of new businesses, a telephone system and a new public dipping vat where farmers brought their livestock for dipping as part of the state’s tick eradication program.

“While Hays and Fagan were busy developing Glenwood proper, the Clark Lumber Co. was building its own residential community near its mill. It consisted of an area of large white frame houses for mill supervisors and office employees along Gilmer Street. Many of the smaller houses for workers, painted red and white, were built along nearby Clay Street, sometimes called Candy Street. In the fall of 1908, the company built a large frame community building near downtown. It was used for church services and a school.”

What’s now U.S. Highway 70 between Glenwood and Hot Springs was paved in the 1920s. That’s also when the peach industry began to develop in the area.

The Caddo River Lumber Co. purchased the Clark Lumber Co. in 1922 and expanded the mill. In June 1936, lightning started a fire that destroyed most of the mill. With the forests in the area cut out, the company moved its operations to Oregon.

Glenwood’s population fell from 1,310 in 1930 to 854 in 1940. It didn’t top 1,000 again until the 1970 census.

“The 1970s witnessed an aggressive campaign of industrial growth and annexation that brought the town’s population up to 1,402 by 1980,” Baker writes. “During this period, the Curt Bean Lumber Co., one of the nation’s largest independently owned lumber producers, located a lumber mill at Glenwood. During the 1990s, the Caddo River at Glenwood became one of the most popular canoeing streams in western Arkansas. The population stood at 1,354 in 1990. The Glenwood Country Club’s golf course was opened.”

A thriving poultry industry also brought a large number of Hispanic residents, who now make up almost a quarter of Glenwood’s population.

Leaving Glenwood, we travel about four miles west on U.S. Highway 70 and then continue west on Arkansas Highway 84. This route takes us across the northern part of Pike County, which was carved out of Clark and Hempstead counties by the Arkansas Territorial Legislature in November 1833 and named after explorer Zebulon Pike. Pike County is best known to Arkansans for the diamond mine near Murfreesboro and for Lake Greeson. Those attractions are to the south of us.

“In 1900, Martin White Greeson, who owned property in Pike County and also owned and operated the Murfreesboro-Nashville Southwest Railroad, started a campaign for a dam on the Little Missouri River to alleviate flooding,” Doris Russell Foshee writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “Congress finally approved the project in 1941 and authorized $3 million for it. The construction began on June 1, 1948, and finished on July 12, 1951. The dam was named Narrows Dam because of its narrow site. The lake was named Lake Greeson in honor Martin Greeson.”

The southern part of the county is in the Gulf Coastal Plain with the northern part of Pike County in the Ouachita Mountains. We’re in what’s known as the Athens Plateau, the southernmost subdivision of the Ouachita Mountains.

“Although its topography is characterized by east-west ridges like most of the Ouachitas, the maximum elevations are under 1,000 feet,” Tom Foti writes for the Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission. “Despite the name, it isn’t a flat-topped plateau like those of the Ozarks. Rather it has been proposed that the entire set of ridges and valleys was lowered and raised as a unit after the ridges had formed. According to that scenario, the region was lowered below sea level and it rose again as a plain with the valleys filled with sediment. Streams such as the Cossatot River and Little Missouri River ran from north to south and crossed the ridges in their paths. At each crossing, they created a steep rapids or waterfall and emptied the valleys of their sediments. As a result, these streams have a much different character than those of the Ozarks, making them challenging for those in canoes and kayaks. Because of the waterfalls, this boundary has sometimes been referred to as the fall line. It has proven to be a prime location for dams that impound reservoirs built by the Corps of Engineers.

“Cities of the Athens Plateau — such as Bismarck in Hot Spring County, Wickes in Polk County and Amity in Clark County — are generally small with fewer than 1,000 residents. Larger cities such as Arkadelphia, Murfreesboro, De Queen and Glenwood are located along the boundaries of the subdivision. Some of these cities owe much of their economy to the timber produced within the Athens Plateau. The subdivision is still dominantly forested with much of it owned by the timber industry and managed for timber production.”

On the next leg of our trip, we’ll make it to the banks of the Cossatot River.

Post to Twitter

From Mountain View to Heber Springs

Wednesday, February 27th, 2019

FIFTH IN A SERIES

In addition to being one of the best places in the country to experience the music and crafts of the Southern mountains, Stone County also became a hub for those who enjoy the outdoors thanks to the development of trout fishing in the White River (documented earlier in this series) and the opening to the public of Blanchard Springs Caverns by the U.S. Forest Service.

Near Mountain View, resorts such as Jack’s and Anglers serve those who come for trout.

Blanchard Springs, meanwhile, is about 15 miles northwest of Mountain View.

“The spring that formed the cavern emerges from the mountainside in a waterfall and flows into a pond called Mirror Lake,” writes Arkansas historian Nancy Hendricks. “The spring was named for John H. Blanchard, who left his family’s plantation in Kentucky and fought for the Confederacy, enlisting in the Kentucky Volunteers in 1861. Following bitter conflict at such battles as Chickamauga, where he was wounded, Blanchard sought peace after the war ended by homesteading 160 acres in the tranquil Ozarks. There he built a gristmill powered by the falling spring that now bears his name. Blanchard was also elected to two terms as Stone County treasurer.

“Though there is graffiti in the cave saying ‘John 1922,’ it was not John Blanchard since he died in 1914 at age 74. Local residents were aware of the cave in the 1930s, but the only entrances were a sheer 75-foot drop and underwater through the spring as it exited. Exploration was delayed until more modern technology and equipment could be developed.”

Civilian Conservation Corps planner Willard Hadley began visiting the cave in 1934.

“Amateur spelunkers in 1955 found a human cranium, footprints and other signs of exploration by Native Americans,” Hendricks writes. “Cane and wooden torch remains underwent radiocarbon dating and indicated that prehistoric human exploration of the cave occurred at least during AD 215-1155. The first professional exploration was in 1960 by Hugh Shell and Hail Bryant. In 1971, scuba divers entered through the spring entrance and followed its course. The divers followed 4,000 feet of underwater passages and also mapped five caverns filled with air but inaccessible at that time. They photographed the awesome cave formations and noted forms of cave life. They estimated that it takes about 24 hours for water to flow through the cave, a journey of less than a mile.”

Following almost a decade of planning and development, what’s known as the Dripstone Tour was opened to the public in 1973. The longer Discovery Tour was opened to the public in 1977.

“Blanchard Springs Caverns was almost recruited by the federal government as a fallout shelter during the Cold War, though the plan was abandoned,” Hendricks writes.

We head south out of Mountain View on Arkansas Highway 5 and soon find ourselves in Cleburne County. Tourism has had an even more dramatic effect on Cleburne County than on Stone County. By 1960, the county’s population had dropped to 9,059, lower than it was in 1900. It had almost tripled to 25,970 by the 2010 census.

Cleburne County was the last of Arkansas’ 75 counties to be formed.

“In August 1881, Max Frauenthal of Conway bought from John T. Jones of Helena a 40-acre tract, including several mineral springs, in a valley near the Little Red River,” Evalena Berry writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. “A few weeks later, Frauenthal organized the Sugar Loaf Springs Land Co. and sold shares to 10 businessmen. The land company’s purpose was to build a town, Sugar Loaf Springs (later to be known as Heber Springs). Frauenthal was elected president of the land company, and Wesley Watkins was secretary. Lots were sold, houses erected and businesses established. The town began to grow.

“Because travel by horse and wagon to Clinton, the Van Buren County seat, was slow and inconvenient, area residents wanted to establish their own county government. Officers of the land company bonded themselves to pay $6,000 to build a courthouse and a county jail on condition that the county seat be located permanently at Sugar Loaf. It had been 10 years since a county had been formed in Arkansas, but a bill was introduced in the Legislature on Jan. 27, 1883, by Sen. Zachariah Bradford Jennings of Van Buren County. The bill passed, and the new county was formed from parts of Independence, Van Buren and White counties with Sugar Loaf as the county seat. The county was named for Confederate Gen. Patrick Cleburne, who had a brilliant military career before his death during the Battle of Franklin in Tennessee in 1864. He was memorialized at the request of men who fought under his leadership. In its first quarter of a century, Cleburne County lay quietly hidden among the hills.”

Things began to change in 1908 with construction of the Missouri & North Arkansas Railroad.

“Tourists flocked to the picturesque town of Heber Springs to drink water from the mineral springs,” Berry writes. “Doctors from the mosquito-ridden lowlands of southeast Arkansas sent their patients to drink the waters for their curative powers.”

The U.S. government had granted a land patent in 1835 to John Magness for a 40-acre tract that now includes Spring Park and its seven mineral springs. Magness sold the land in 1837 for $150 to Richard B. Lee, R.D.C Collins, William McKim and John T. Jones.

“Efforts were made by Jones and his partners to develop a place similar to Eureka Springs or Hot Springs,” Berry writes. “Jones took a proposal to the Legislature in 1837, and the following year, that body approved an act to incorporate the White Sulphur Springs Co. ‘for the purpose of making it a healthy resort for the citizens of Arkansas.’ The sulphur water didn’t attract tourists for bathing, but after the town was incorporated, the springs became known for their medicinal qualities.”

An 1886 booklet titled ‘The Famous Health Resort of Heber Springs and Cleburne County, stated: “The sulphur springs are a cure for dyspepsia, headache, biliousness and hundreds of other ailments.”

Infighting among the partners led to a judge ordering the land to be sold at auction in March 1851. No bids were received. The judge ordered a second auction in September of that year, and Jones bought the entire tract for $189.

“Jones held the tract undeveloped and unused for 30 years, during which time he acquired an additional 50 acres west of the original tract,” Berry writes.

Frauenthal, a Bavarian native, had the area surveyed and plotted.

“When the town applied for a post office, the U.S. Postal Service rejected the name Sugar Loaf Springs,” Berry writes. “The town fathers then agreed on the name Heber, honoring Dr. Heber Jones of Memphis, son of Judge John T. Jones, the early owner of the site. From 1882 until 1910, the post office was called Heber, and the town was called Sugar Loaf. At that time, in an effort to attract visitors to the springs, the names of both the post office and the town were changed to Heber Springs.”

Passengers were arriving via the Missouri & North Arkansas Railroad by late 1908.

“Tourists flocked to Sugar Loaf Springs and filled the 11 rooming houses and hotels that were built to serve them,” Berry writes. “Doctors sent patients to Heber Springs to drink the mineral water for relief from nervous disorders and stomach ailments. Main Street thrived with a movie house, an open-air skating rink, an ice cream parlor, a bowling alley and other diversions. Fishing and picnics on the Little Red River were popular among residents and summer visitors.”

My grandfather in Des Arc was among those the doctors sent to Heber Springs to drink the water. My mother, who was born in 1925, had memories of going to visit him there on Sundays as a child when he spent several months in one of the rooming houses.

Tourism declined during the Great Depression, and Cleburne County again needed a boost. That boost came in the form of Greers Ferry Dam.

Soon after passage of the Flood Control Act of 1938, engineers began to survey not only the White River but also its tributaries such as the Little Red River. The completion of Norfork Dam in Arkansas on the North Fork River was followed by the construction of Bull Shoals Dam in Arkansas and Table Rock Dam in Missouri along the White River. In 1960, construction began on Beaver Dam in Arkansas on the White River and Greers Ferry Dam on the Little Red River.

Greers Ferry was named after a ferry that had operated on the river.

Work was completed in 1962, and President John F. Kennedy dedicated the dam on Oct. 3, 1963. It was one of his final major trips before his assassination the following month in Dallas.

“The dam measures 1,704 feet in length and stands 243 feet above the Little Red,” Zackery Cothren writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “It cost $46.5 million and created a reservoir of between 30,000 and 40,000 acres in Cleburne and Van Buren counties. Construction of the dam required the relocation of families living on the bottomland along the river. Upon the dam’s completion, a number of communities were submerged, including Miller, Higden, Shiloh and Edgemont. While there were many who were opposed to the construction of the dam, no citizen protest had ever halted plans for a Corps of Engineers reservoir. Most viewed opposition as futile.

“Despite the inundation of the majority of the county’s most productive farmland, the positive economic impact of the dam and lake was immediate. … Popular tourist destinations associated with the lake include the William Carl Garner Visitor Center, 18 recreational areas and three nature trails. The Greers Ferry National Fish Hatchery, located below the dam, is another popular destination. The hatchery, operated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, primarily raises rainbow trout.”

The area also was helped by the investment of one of the state’s business titans, Herbert L. Thomas Sr.

Thomas had been born in February 1899 in rural Ashley County in far south Arkansas. Early in life, he became convinced that the insurance industry was a sector of the economy that could withstand downturns. He formed the Mutual Assessment Co. in 1923. By 1925, there were more than 10,000 policyholders. Many of them were rural Arkansans.

Thomas later incorporated the First Pyramid Life Insurance Co. of America and set up shop in the Southern Trust Building in downtown Little Rock. He purchased the structure in 1937 and renamed it the Pyramid Life Building. That building still stands in downtown Little Rock and is known as Pyramid Place.

“Conscious of the importance of education for financial growth, Thomas served on the University of Arkansas Board of Trustees from 1943-51,” writes Arkansas historian Rachel Patton. “He was instrumental in the admission of the first black student to the University of Arkansas School of Law in 1948 (Silas Hunt). Thomas was also involved in banking. He acquired City National Bank of Fort Smith in the mid-1950s as well as Citizens Bank of Booneville in 1963.

“Although he never ran for political office, Thomas was heavily involved in politics. He had a close relationship with Sen. J. William Fulbright and headed his initial Senate campaign after convincing Fulbright to run for an office higher than Arkansas’ governorship. Furthermore, Thomas figured prominently in Kennedy’s 1963 visit to Heber Springs.”

Thomas and his wife Ruby had fallen in love with the Greers Ferry area. In 1961, Thomas purchased 500 acres near Heber Springs for a development that would become known as Eden Isle. His political connections paid off.

Patton writes: “People had been buying up large chunks of bottomland in hopes that they could sell it to the government at a profit or end up with lakefront property after the completion of a dam. After so many years, most individuals gave up on those notions and sold out. For those wanting lakefront property, it was a gamble to buy land around the proposed dam site because no one knew exactly where the lake would be or what the water level would be … until Herbert Thomas came along.

“Thomas knew Rep. Wilbur D. Mills and Sens. John L. McClellan and J. William Fulbright and was able to find out the location of the lake and its water level. He knew which land to purchase and when to purchase it. Thomas bought property historically owned by the Estes family and known as Estes Hill. It was also the first location of the Heber Springs airport so some people referred to it as the ‘old airport.'”

Islands in Corps of Engineers’ lakes cannot be privately owned. Knowing this, Thomas built a causeway that would be above lake level so what would become Eden Isle couldn’t be classified by the federal government as an island. Thomas also had to build the causeway before the lake was filled. Once the lake was filled, 400 of Thomas’ 500 acres were above water. Thomas began selling lots for homes and started construction on what he hoped would be the finest vacation destination in the state, the Red Apple Inn. The lodge and restaurant opened for business in 1963, burned in 1964 following a kitchen fire and reopened in 1965.

The Red Apple Inn fell into disrepair under the ownership of Melvyn Bell, who was millions of dollars in debt prior to his death at age 68 in July 2006 following a lengthy battle with cancer.

Along came Dick Upton and his wife Patti, the founder of Aromatique, the well-known manufacturer of home fragrance products. The Uptons spent $4.2 million in 1995 to buy the Red Apple Inn and then had to spend millions more on improvements to the facility. Within a few years, they had returned the Red Apple to its status as one of the premier resorts in the region.

Thomas had been a perfectionist when it came to Eden Isle.

“Planning and construction restrictions were to be enforced by a community corporation so that homes would blend into the landscape,” Patton wrote. “Houses were supposed to be relatively small and employ native stone, wood and glass construction with a tile roof. First Pyramid provided an architect and maintained a full-time engineer and construction force. The developers also hired full-time landscape architects to ensure that native trees and plants were protected and that yards were attractive yet low maintenance for individual landowners.

“Herbert and Ruby were very involved in the actual construction of homes and management of the restaurant at the Red Apple Inn. The Red Apple consistently enjoyed high national ratings for food, lodging and service. People knew the area because of the Red Apple Inn, not because of Greers Ferry Lake or Heber Springs. In 1978, the Red Apple executive conference center opened in a new addition to the Red Apple Inn and accommodated groups of up to 120 people.”

Thomas resigned as the First Pyramid chairman in 1980 and focused entirely on the development of Eden Isle during the final two years of his life. He was 83 when he died in March 1982.

Below the dam, the cold waters of the Little Red River became one of the South’s top trout fishing areas, attracting visitors from across the country. People no longer come to Heber Springs because their doctors sent them there to take the waters, though Spring Park in the center of town remains a nice place for a picnic. There are other reminders of when the town was a health spa.

“Heber Springs is one of the locations in the state where Depression-era post office art can be viewed,” Berry writes. “The Cleburne County Courthouse, built in 1914, is on the National Register of Historic Places, as is the Mike Disfarmer gravesite, the burial location of the well-known portrait photographer. The Women’s Community Club Band Shell, built in 1933, is also a landmark.”

Post to Twitter

From Calico Rock to Mountain View

Tuesday, February 19th, 2019

FOURTH IN A SERIES

We cross the White River at Calico Rock. We’re in Stone County now as we drive south. The county had just 12,394 residents in the 2010 census but is synonymous in the minds of most Arkansans with mountain music and culture.

Much of the northern part of the county is in the Ozark National Forest.

“Although one of the state’s younger counties, Stone County is home to dozens of listings on the National Register of Historic Places,” Stephanie Lawrence Labert writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. “Among these is the Sylamore Creek Bridge, known locally as the Swinging Bridge. … Many spring-fed creeks, including the South Sylamore, are tributaries of the White River. A familiar tributary of the North Sylamore is Blanchard Springs. Known for cool, clear water that is a haven for trout and bass, the White River provides recreational opportunities in fishing and canoeing and is the source for the county’s public water system.”

Stone County was part of the hunting grounds for the Osage tribe. Settlers from Tennessee and other states to the east began moving into the area in the 1830s. Because few county residents owned slaves, there was a strong Union sentiment leading up to and during the Civil War.

“In 1862, the Peace Society was organized at Sylamore and was made up of about 80 men from the area,” Labert writes. “The men didn’t want to become involved in the war for either side but were eventually chained and sent to Little Rock. They were given the option of joining the Confederate cause or being shot.”

Stone County was created by the Legislature in April 1873 out of parts of Independence, Izard, Searcy and Van Buren counties.

“A site at the center of the county was chosen to be the seat of government,” Edie Nicholson writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “After some disagreement on what to name the new county seat, a group of citizens held a drawing. Though sources conflict about who submitted the name Mountain View, Elijah Chappell is thought to have been present at the drawing along with early settlers Jacob King and Calvin McMurtry. … After a small log building was constructed as the new county courthouse, businesses began to grow around the new county seat. In 1890, Mountain View finally became an incorporated town. The city has had three courthouses — the original log structure, a two-story frame courthouse built at the present site in 1888 and the current stone building that was constructed in 1923.”

Labert writes: “In the county’s early days, the economy was based on small-acreage cash crops such as grain and cotton along with timber, trapping and livestock. The residents of Stone County, like the rest of the country, suffered from the effects of the Great Depression. The self-sustaining lifestyle they were used to in this isolated area helped them survive. Due to poor road conditions, livestock and timber were shipped by rail or water. People survived by growing their own food, trapping, harvesting herbs, making corn whiskey and bartering with those who had what they needed.

“During World War II, Stone County was affected by rationing. Women began to work outside the home, and people collected items such as scrap rubber to help with the war effort. Stone County citizens increased farm production in milk products, eggs, potatoes and peanuts. At the close of the war, soldiers returned home and life resumed. A fire in the business district of Mountain View destroyed 13 businesses and damaged four others, providing another setback for the development of the county.”

With job opportunities limited, the population of Stone County fell from 8,603 in the 1940 census to 6,294 in the 1960 census.

“Agriculture (mainly beef cattle and poultry) and timber have always been important industries for the Mountain View area,” Nicholson writes. “But the community struggled to attract industry because of its inaccessibility. The roads leading out of Mountain View — with the exception of Highway 14 toward Batesville — weren’t paved until the late 1960s and early 1970s. Local residents feared that the county would decline if it didn’t find a way to attract visitors.”

Since 1960, the population of Stone County has doubled. Give credit to the Arkansas Folk Festival, the Arkansas Craft Guild, the Rackensack Folklore Society, Jimmy Driftwood and finally the Ozark Folk Center and Blanchard Springs Caverns.

“The Arkansas Folk Festival has its roots in the Stone County Folkways Festival, which was held in 1941 to celebrate the musical heritage of the area,” writes Lori Freeze of the Stone County Leader. “Musical performances and a jig dance contest were among the events held at the Blanchard Springs recreation area. World War II prevented subsequent gatherings, but the festival was revived in 1963 during the birth of a regional tourism effort. The Ozark Foothills Handicraft Guild (now the Arkansas Craft Guild), which represented a seven-county area, had held its first show the year before in Batesville. The local tourist and recreation committee had sponsored a regional dogwood drive the previous few years. It was decided to combine the different events into one big spring festival. Attendance at the festival peaked in the 1970s with the height of popularity of folk music and the free-spirited audience that followed it. The festival was extended over two weekends in its most popular phase.”

The festival still attracts between 20,000 to 30,000 people to Stone County each April.

Meanwhile, the Ozark Foothills Handicraft Guild was incorporated in 1962.

“The organization’s initial aim was to provide supplemental income for the people in the north-central Arkansas foothills,” Erlene Carter writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “In 1960, University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service representative Leo Rainey, along with officials in Stone County, began exploring ways to bring cottage industry into the area. While soliciting crafters to exhibit at local craft fairs, they found members for the proposed guild. Focusing first on Stone County, they soon extended the area to include surrounding counties. The guild decided to include all of Arkansas in 1967. The name was changed to the Arkansas Craft Guild in 1990 to indicate a statewide organization.”

A Small Business Administration loan of $15,600 in 1963 allowed the guild to construct log cabins at Salem, Hardy, Clinton, Heber Springs and Mountain View. Stores were operating out of those cabins by 1964.

“These were the guild’s first retail outlets,” Carter writes. “Jim Warren, a woodcarver and carpenter, almost single-handedly built all five. Manned exclusively by volunteers, the outlets offered merchandise placed there on consignment by members. The guild prospered. By 1975, it was able to purchase land near Mountain View and build a craft shop and office complex, including the space necessary to hold its annual spring craft show. The first paid director, office secretary and shopkeepers were hired at that time. Merchandise was purchased from members.”

The organization’s first big spring craft show had been held at Mountain View in April 1962. A fall show started in October 1966 at Heber Springs. The Heber Springs show ended in 1989, and the Mountain View show ended in 1993. But the guild’s Arkansas Craft Gallery at Mountain View continues to be a popular stop for visitors and cements the city’s reputation as a place for Ozark crafts in addition to music.

Another major player in the rebirth of Stone County was the Rackensack Folklore Society.

“Stone County was unique in having music-making families who were the base of the Rackensack organization,” Glenn Morrison writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “The society was begun by Lloyd Hollister, a doctor, and his wife Martha. They came from the Little Rock area in 1962 and settled at Fox. Hollister set up his medical practice in Mountain View with Howard Monroe, a noted surgeon in the area. The Hollisters attended various musical sessions in Fox and joined in the music-making. In February 1963, Hollister held a meeting with six others at the Monroe Clinic to form an organization that would reach out to the people of the area and provide an opportunity for them to share their music with the public. Before adjourning, it was decided to meet again that week and organize the new folklore society, elect officers and solicit membership.”

It was Jimmy Driftwood who suggested the Rackensack name. The folk festival was scheduled for the third weekend in April.

“The group received permission from the county to use the courtroom in the courthouse for practice sessions for the upcoming festival program,” Morrison writes. “These Friday night sessions became a weekly attraction to the public and were continued until the Ozark Folk Center was built. Turnout for the April folk festival was phenomenal with local, state and national media covering the event. In response, the Rackensack Folklore Society established itself as a permanent organization. Rackensack continued to have an annual folk festival the third weekend in April until the early 1970s, at which time the city of Mountain View and its newly formed chamber of commerce assumed the responsibility of having the festival at the same time each year.”

Famed editorial cartoonist George Fisher created a branch organization in Little Rock later in the 1960s.

The society and Driftwood would become key players in the establishment of the Ozark Folk Center. Driftwood, who had been born James Corbett Morris near Mountain View in 1907, had become nationally known in 1959 when Johnny Horton recorded his song “The Battle of New Orleans.”

“He was given the name Driftwood as the result of a joke his grandfather had played on his grandmother,” Zac Cothren writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “When the two went to visit their new grandson, Driftwood’s grandfather arrived first and wrapped a bundle of old sticks in a blanket. When Driftwood’s grandmother arrived, she was handed the bundle and remarked: ‘Why, it ain’t nothing but driftwood.’

“Music played a large role in Driftwood’s life from his earliest years. His father, a farmer by trade, was also an accomplished folk singer. It was through him and other local musicians that Driftwood was first exposed to the songs of the Ozarks. While still a small child, Driftwood learned to play the guitar his grandfather had made from a piece of a rail fence and other salvaged materials. He would continue to play this unusual-looking instrument throughout his career.”

Driftwood attended school in a one-room building at Richwoods in Stone County. He passed the state teachers’ exam at the age of 16 and then taught in one-room schoolhouses at Prim in Cleburne County, Roasting Ear Creek in Stone County, Timbo in Stone County and Fifty-Six in Stone County while also taking high school classes at Mountain View. He later attended what are now the University of Central Arkansas at Conway and John Brown University at Siloam Springs.

“Driftwood left college after receiving a degree and rambled for a while, eventually ending up in Arizona,” Cothren writes. “While in Phoenix, he won a local talent show, which led to weekly performances on a local radio station. He left Phoenix in 1935 and returned to Stone County to teach at Timbo. Although he had been writing songs and poetry for years, it was at Timbo that Driftwood began teaching his students history through song.”

In 1947, Driftwood purchased a 150-acre farm in Stone County and owned the farm until his death in 1998. He finally received a bachelor’s degree from what’s now UCA in 1949 after taking night and summer classes. Driftwood was then hired as the principal at Snowball.

“In the early 1950s, Driftwood began testing the waters of commercial music,” Cothren writes. “He submitted songs he had written to several record companies, including Blasco Music Co. and Shelter Music in Kansas City. Shelter and Blasco recorded some of Driftwood’s material with little commercial success. In 1957, Driftwood went to Nashville and auditioned for RCA record executive Don Warden, who signed him to a contract. Driftwood, under the guidance of RCA’s Chet Atkins, recorded his first album, titled ‘Jimmy Driftwood Sings Newly Discovered American Folk Songs,’ in less than three hours. It was released in 1958 and saw limited success.

“The album featured ‘The Battle of New Orleans,’ a song Driftwood had composed in 1936 to help his students differentiate between the War of 1812 and the Revolutionary War. The song was a hit among those who heard it, but the strict broadcast standards of the day virtually excluded it from the airways because of the words ‘hell’ and ‘damn’ in the lyrics. After the release of Driftwood’s album, he quit his job as principal at Snowball and began making regular appearances at such popular country music venues as the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville; the Ozark Jubilee in Springfield, Mo.; and the Louisiana  Hayride in Shreveport. He met Horton in Shreveport. Horton expressed an interest in recording ‘The Battle of New Orleans.’ Driftwood revamped the song’s lyrics to make them acceptable for radio.”

Horton’s version of the song topped the country charts for 10 weeks in 1959 and topped the pop charts for six weeks. At the second Grammy Awards ceremony in 1959, Driftwood and Horton won Song of the Year honors. Driftwood’s “Wilderness Road” received a Grammy nomination for Best Folk Performance of the Year. And Eddie Arnold received Grammy nominations in the folk and country categories for his version of Driftwood’s “Tennessee Stud.”

In 1962, Driftwood became a starring member of the Grand Ole Opry’s cast and also taught folklore at the University of Southern California.

“Driftwood longed to return to Stone County,” Cothren writes. “In 1963, he returned to Timbo. He helped form the Rackensack Folklore Society, was one of the visionaries in creating the Arkansas Folk Festival and was a leading force in the establishment of the Ozark Folk Center. Having more national notoriety than anyone else involved in Arkansas’ folk scene, Driftwood was largely responsible for promoting and securing funding for folk celebrations and the folk center. He astounded city officials by obtaining $2.1 million toward the construction of the center from the U.S. House Ways and Means Committee.”

Of course, it didn’t hurt that the committee was chaired by an Arkansan, Rep. Wilbur Mills.

The Ozark Folk Center cost $3.4 million to build and opened in May 1973 as the country’s premier facility for preserving Southern mountain folkways and traditions. It had a 1,000-seat auditorium, multiple craft demonstration areas, a welcome center, a 60-room lodge, a restaurant, a conference center and a gift shop. Construction by Advanced Projects Corp. of New York, which had won the contract to build and operate the center, began in 1971 on an 80-acre tract at the north edge of Mountain View. The contractor ran into financial problems in 1972. The state later agreed to operate the center as a state park, which now covers 637 acres.

With so many factions in those hills, it was inevitable that there would be controversy.

Morrison tells it this way: “Music programs were scheduled weekly with Driftwood as the principal entertainer and emcee. Driftwood was appointed to what was then the state Publicity and Parks Commission. After the folk center became a state park, Rackensack officers received notice from the state that Rackensack would have to enter into a contract with the state if they were to provide the music. But the state couldn’t contract Rackensack since it was a nonprofit organization. A general meeting was called, and Josephine Linker Hart, the attorney for Rackensack, reported that the state had recommended that the name Rackensack Folklore Society be changed to Rackensack Inc. and that members be allowed to buy shares at a fee of $20 each. By a large majority, the membership voted to go with the state recommendation.

“Driftwood objected and told the members that Rackensack Inc. wouldn’t be formed, no contract would be signed with the state and members wouldn’t be paid to perform. Staff members in Gov. David Pryor’s office were following the developments and asked Driftwood to reconsider. Driftwood wouldn’t change his thinking, and it became necessary for Pryor to remove him from his position as musical director at the Ozark Folk Center. Rackensack contracted with the state and provided the musical programs for the first season of 1973. After leaving the folk center, Driftwood and a small following of original Rackensack members erected a building north of Mountain View and named it the Jimmy Driftwood Barn.”

Post to Twitter

From Norfork to Calico Rock

Thursday, February 14th, 2019

THIRD IN A SERIES

I leave Norfork in Baxter County and continue the trip south on Arkansas Highway 5, crossing into Izard County.

Izard County once was much larger than it is today.

“In the 19th century, Izard County served as a gateway to settlement across northern Arkansas and was the parent county of seven other counties,” Susan Varno writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. “Later, Izard County’s virgin yellow pine forests provided lumber to other parts of the state. … Izard County hasn’t changed a great deal since the settlers first arrived. Then and now, oak and pine forests cover much of the southern Ozark hills. The county’s high elevations are in the Boswell and Sylamore area. Limestone bluffs grace parts of Pine Creek and the White River. Grassy valleys are dotted with small towns.”

Settlers came here from the Carolinas, Tennessee and Kentucky. A writer named Augustus Jeffrey once said of Izard County: “From 1815-20, the White River valley was overrun by hunters, stock raisers, horse thieves, murderers and refugees from prisons.”

He noted that “about 1827, a revival of religion commenced under the preaching of the Baptist, Methodist and Cumberland Presbyterian churches.”

The territorial government in Little Rock split off part of Independence County in 1825 and named the new county for Gov. George Izard.

Varno writes: “Adding Osage (1827) and Cherokee (1828) lands, Izard County covered most of north-central Arkansas. In 1833, western Izard County was divided into Van Buren, Carroll and Johnson counties. Later, sections of Izard County were split off to become Marion (1836), Fulton (1842) and parts of Baxter (1873) and Stone (1873) counties.”

The first county seat at what’s now Norfork was moved to Athens in 1830 and Mount Olive in 1836.

Mill Creek (later Melbourne) became the county seat in 1875 and has remained the seat of government since then. Courthouses burned in 1889 and 1937 at Melbourne. The current courthouse was built from 1938-40 by the National Youth Administration.

The White River has always played an important role in the lives of those who live in this area.

“Keelboats began bringing settlers up the White River in the early 1800s,” Varno writes. “By 1844, steamboats were traveling the White River as far as Izard County, bringing in passengers and mail and leaving with cash crops. As a result, the county’s population increased from 1,266 in 1830 to 7,215 in 1860. Steamboats made regular stops at Guion and Calico Rock. From the 1820s, pine was harvested, some with slave labor, and floated down the river or taken by steamboat.”

The 1860 census reported that there were 382 black residents of Izard County. In the most recent census in 2010, there were only 175 black residents out of a total population of 13,696. That’s about the same as in 1870 when there were 164 black residents. Varno says that freed slaves were driven out of the county in the years after the Civil War by “lack of work, discrimination and the Ku Klux Klan.”

“Cash crops were cotton, corn, wheat, pork, beef and pine timber,” she writes. “Residents supplemented their farm produce with fish, wild game, mussels from the White River, berries and nuts. Almost every family in Izard County owned land. Abundant timber for building and firewood allowed each family to have as large a house as they wanted. Women spun cotton thread and made cloth on looms. Besides farming, residents found employment as lumberjacks or in local gristmills, cotton gins, sawmills and general stores.”

The railroad, running along the northern bank of the White River, came to this isolated part of the state in 1903. That ended steamboat traffic along the upper White River.

The county’s population fell from 13,871 in the 1920 census to just 6,766 in the 1960 census.

“Farming became less viable, and many county residents moved to Oklahoma or Texas,” Varno writes. “During the Great Depression, others went to the state of Washington to work in the apple orchards, some returning home after the harvest. Cotton farming died out after World War II.”

The trend of population loss ended in the early 1960s. Since 1960, the county’s population has more than doubled. What happened?

Tourism took off with the advent of world-class trout fishing on the White River, the planned community of Horseshoe Bend brought retirees to the county, an aircraft fabrication plant opened near Melbourne in 1964 and the state opened a prison unit just north of Calico Rock in 1990. The prison now serves as the county’s largest employer.

I roll into Calico Rock, which I’ve always considered to be among the most charming small towns in Arkansas.

It was first a steamboat landing on the White River known as Calico Landing. The population soared in the early 1900s as those working on the new railroad were housed there.

How did the city — which had 1,545 residents in the 2000 census — get its name?

Ed Matthews writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas that the name came about “because of the wide strips of color — blue, black, gray, red and orange — giving the appearance of alternate widths of calico cloth on the bluffs bordering the river on the north. No other city in the United States has the name. Early French explorers took note of the pristine beauty of the river valley, naming the river La Riviere Blanche. In writing of his tours of Missouri and Arkansas in 1818-19, author and scientist Henry Schoolcraft referred to the shore as ‘calico rock.’ Calico Rock’s boat landing was at the river’s confluence with Calico Creek, which flows between the two bluff formations on the river’s north bank. It was the most popular docking site above Batesville.”

The first post office opened in 1851. It soon closed and wasn’t re-established until 1879.

Matthews says of the years during and just after the Civil War: “There was considerable jayhawking, including general harassment, stealing, looting and burning. This, along with the commerce around the boat landing and the arrival of railroad construction crews, caused Calico Rock to acquire a reputation as a tough frontier town.”

Though the soil was rocky, cotton was grown in the area in the late 1800s and early 1900s.

“The marketing and shipping of timber products was also a major industry of the town,” Matthews writes. “A barge-building entity operated for a short time on the north bank of the river, though the building of the railroad was the principal factor in Calico Rock’s economic growth. Churches were slow in coming to the reputedly tough frontier, and religious congregations often met in people’s homes. The Methodist and Presbyterian congregations of the town used the same building until 1907 when the Presbyterians built their own.”

The Bank of Calico Rock opened in 1903. In 1923, a spark from a locomotive started a fire that destroyed more than 20 businesses.

Matthews writes: “A planer mill, complete with dry-kiln chambers, was part of the town by 1904. Robert Hays and his brother converted it to a hardwood flooring mill by the 1950s. It wasn’t uncommon by 1907 to see more than 100 wagons arriving daily with timber products. The Benbrook Flour Mill, a water-powered corn-grinding mill, contributed to the region’s economic strength. Calico Rock became quite a shopping center as farmers brought their produce and did their shopping, frequently from such distances that they would camp overnight in the wagon yard known still as Peppersauce Alley because of the moonshine whiskey traded there.”

The Great Depression was especially tough on this area of the state as it continued to lose population from World War II until the 1960s.

“During World War II, the economy of this already struggling town was hit hard,” Matthews writes. “There was a great deal of outmigration to Kansas by people seeking employment in an ammunition manufacturing arsenal. After that plant closed, many former residents of Calico Rock stayed in the Kansas City area, and their families followed them there. About the same time, there was a noted migration of residents to work in the orchards of Washington state, gathering apples, pears, cherries and other fruit. … Calico Rock has never attracted much industry to sustain it.”

Retirees, however, helped the population grow from 991 in the 2000 census to 1,545 in the 2010 census. Calico Rock also became easier to reach. A bridge was built over the White River on Highway 5 in 1967 to replace the ferry that long had operated there.

What’s known as the Calico Rock Historic District covers a downtown block along the highway along with the historic Riverview Hotel a block away.

“These buildings, erected from 1903-24, represent early 20th-century architectural styles,” Varno writes. “The district is typical of downtown districts that emerged along railroad lines, though Calico Rock stands out for having been built on a hillside. The district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on Nov. 19, 1985. … Every spring, heavy rains caused the White River to rise, which made Calico Creek flood. In 1902, Izard County surveyor Elbert Benbrook platted the town’s business district on the hillside above the creek. That year, Joseph T. Garner erected a two-story frame building on the new Main Street. He opened a mercantile store. Soon after, Edward Nicholas Rand built two stone buildings on the high side of the street for his mercantile store and warehouse.

“Calico Rock quickly became a regional commercial center. Every Saturday, men and women from Izard, Stone, Baxter and Fulton counties came by train, wagon, truck or automobile to transact business, see doctors, shop, visit restaurants or see movies. Other buildings on the high side of Main Street were the Calico Rocket newspaper office (1904), the Wiseman Hotel (about 1912), the People’s Bank (1912) and Evans Brothers Pharmacy (1918).”

All of the buildings on the lower side of Main Street, which were of wood construction, burned in the 1923 fire. They were rebuilt with brick and stone.

“After the fire, businesses on the low side included Marshall Floyd’s Grocery (1924), Hayden’s Dry Goods (late 1920s), the Green Tavern Cafe (1925), the Hillbilly Cafe (1926) and City Barber Shop (1925),” Varno writes. “These buildings have basements with doors that open in the rear onto Peppersauce Alley, which is about 10 feet below Main Street. In 1924, Benjamin Sanders built the Riverview Hotel on Rodman Street above Main. He used cement blocks fired in a kiln in the hotel’s front yard.”

The Calico Rock Heritage Museum & Visitor Center was dedicated downtown in April 2014. It was the result of an effort that began in 2007 when a group of area residents formed the Calico Rock Organization for Revitalization Efforts to promote tourism. CORE later signed an agreement with the city to develop exhibits in the back room of a former bank building. The nonprofit Calico Rock Museum Foundation was chartered in 2008.

Jim Murphy offered in 2009 to sell a downtown building to the foundation at the discounted price of $80,000. Prisoners from the nearby state prison helped rehabilitate the building. Historic exhibits were placed in the building, and it opened to the public in January 2011. The Calico Rock Artisans Cooperative also sold arts and crafts in the building.

In 2012, the city sold a former bank building to the foundation for $1. The various facilities have now made Calico Rock an interesting stop for those driving along Highway 5.

The Calico Rock Heritage Museum and Visitors Center is open from 9 a.m. until 5 p.m. Monday through Friday and from 9 a.m. until 3 p.m. on Saturday. The adjoining Tomlinson Arts & Science Center is open from noon until 4 p.m. on Wednesday, from 9 a.m. until 4 p.m. on Thursday and Friday and from 10 a.m. until 3 p.m. on Saturday.

Another popular stop is the Printing Press Cafe & Ice Cream Parlor, which is open from 11 a.m. until 3 p.m. Tuesday through Saturday.

We leave Calico Rock, cross the White River and head through Stone County to Mountain View as we continue south on Highway 5.

Post to Twitter

From Mountain Home to Norfork

Wednesday, February 13th, 2019

SECOND IN A SERIES

The North Fork River begins near the town of Mountain Grove in southern Missouri. It flows south for almost 110 miles before entering the White River in Arkansas.

The first of the big U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dams in the White River basin of Arkansas — Norfork Dam — was built on the North Fork during World War II. It forever changed this part of the Arkansas Ozarks.

“Names for the river have included Big or Great North Fork of White River, North Fork White River and North Fork of White River,” Scott Branyan writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. “Below Norfork Dam, the remaining 4.8-mile stretch of river is referred to as the Norfork tailwater. There is an upstream tributary of the White River farther west called the Little North Fork of the White River, but the lower third of it is now encompassed by Bull Shoals Lake in Marion County.”

Explorers Henry Schoolcraft and Levi Pettibone followed the North Fork in 1818 as they explored this area.

“Schoolcraft describes the limestone and dolomite geology, springs, clear water and abundant game he saw along the river,” Branyan writes. “At times, they had to travel parallel to the river at some distance from it because of the steepness of the terrain and the thickness of the vegetation. The Missouri section of the river has an average gradient of 12.8 feet per mile. Jacob Wolf’s house at the confluence of the North Fork and the White established an early trading influence. However, actual settlements on the North Fork were relatively few. In Arkansas, a notable one was Henderson in what’s now Baxter County. The large tributaries of Big Creek and Bennett’s Bayou also saw some settlement.

“By the end of the 1800s, small subsistence farms grew cotton, corn, wheat and livestock throughout the river valley, but periodic floods made life hard for these settlers and their families. Economic prosperity came to the area only after lake impoundments, road improvements and rural electricity created tourism and real estate activity.”

The federal Flood Control Act of 1938 authorized a dam on the North Fork. Construction began in 1941. Lake Norfork now covers parts of Baxter and Fulton counties in Arkansas and Ozark County in Missouri.

“The Corps noted the North Fork River was a primary contributor to flooding in the White River because of its steep banks and big feeder streams, which frequently swelled during periods of runoff,” Branyan writes. “For a number of years, the Corps and private entities had studied the site for potential hydropower use as well.”

Congressman Claude Fuller of Arkansas was a leading advocate for a system of dams on the White River and its tributaries to control flooding. Fuller served in Congress from 1929-39. In 1938, Clyde Ellis defeated Fuller by 109 votes in the Democratic primary. Ellis immediately took up the fight for the construction of Norfork Dam.

“Securing funding for Depression-era projects at a time of impending war was difficult,” Branyan writes. “Ellis argued that a dam with a power plant was immediately needed for possible wartime production demands. He succeeded in obtaining funding and additional authorization for hydropower in the Flood Control Act of 1941, and the Little Rock District of the Corps of Engineers awarded the construction contract to the Utah Construction Co. and Morrison-Knudsen Co.

“The length of the dam is 2,624 feet. … Initial plans called for two generators, although the project included four 18-foot-diameter penstock tubes (conduits that carry water to the turbines), which would allow the installation of up to four generators at a later date. The World War II-era War Production Board cut this to one generator in the summer of 1942. The dam and powerhouse were operational by 1944. A second generator was installed and in use by February 1950. Two extra penstocks remain plugged with concrete.”

The dam was built entirely of concrete after a location less than five miles upstream from the confluence with the White River was chosen. A spur railroad line was built from Norfork to move equipment and materials. A total of almost 27,000 railroad cars moved along the spur during construction.

“When completed, Norfork Dam reduced 18 of the highest flood crests from February 1945 until April 1947 by an average of 3.31 feet on the White River at Calico Rock,” Branyan writes. “Several hundred small farms had been abandoned in Baxter County and left in foreclosure. Construction of a dam in the area meant prospects for work during the Depression. As soon as word of the approval of Norfork Dam appeared in the newspaper, locals began contacting Ellis to inquire about jobs. During the four-year course of the project, the average number of workers employed on the dam and powerhouse was 815.”

As the water began to rise, about 400 landowners in the Henderson area had to relocate. Twenty-six cemeteries were moved. The lake began to fill on Feb. 1, 1943.

The cold water released from the dam killed native fish populations downstream. In 1955, the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service approved construction of the Norfork National Fish Hatchery so trout could be stocked in the North Fork and White rivers. A 43.9-acre site just below Norfork Dam was chosen for the hatchery.

Hatchery employees began stocking trout in 1957. The hatchery was doubled in size in 1964. It became the largest trout hatchery in the country. Fish are raised to a length of nine inches before being released. Rainbow, brown and cutthroat trout are raised there.

The nearby town of Norfork is among the oldest settlements in the state.

“Before permanent Anglo-American settlement occurred, the juncture of the White and North Fork rivers was the site of early fur-trading activities,” Joan Gould writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “From 1819-28, numerous Native American villages were located nearby. … Izard County was created in 1825. New counties had been created out of Izard County by 1835.”

Wolf was the leading citizen in the area.

“Wolf was one of the earliest homeowners in what would become Norfork,” Steven Teske writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “He is sometimes identified as an Indian agent, although no record exists of his appointment or activity in this vocation. Some local historians have claimed that Wolf arrived in Arkansas as early as 1811, but his presence isn’t mentioned in official records until the mid-1820s. In 1825, Wolf entered a claim to 76 acres on high ground near the confluence of the White and North Fork rivers.

“Wolf had a log house built by slaves and Native American workers. There he raised a large family (he was married three times and fathered 16 children, as well as raising several stepchildren) and served as a major in the territorial militia. His home became the center of county government when Izard County was created in 1825. The next year, a post office was established in his home. Known as Izard Court House until 1844, the post office then changed its name to North Fork. The trading community that arose around the Wolf House was called Liberty by residents and visitors. Liberty was a flourishing settlement with stores, houses and farmland. It was also the jumping-off point for many travelers heading into the western wilderness. With the creation of new counties from parts of Izard County, the Izard County seat was moved from the Wolf House to the community of Athens. Steamboats continued to land at Liberty, and it remained a prominent settlement well into the 19th century.”

The post office at Norfork closed after the Civil War, but a ferry across the White River continued to operate there.

“The community sprang to life again in the first years of the 20th century with the arrival of the Missouri Pacific Railroad,” Teske writes. “A line built to connect Newport to Joplin, Mo., crossed the North Fork River with a new bridge at Liberty. Many of the construction workers temporarily made their homes in the community. It was renamed Devero, apparently after a railroad engineer named Devereaux. The named changed again a few years later to Norfork, a blending of the North Fork name. One source claimed that the name change resulted from Devereaux leaving the area with company funds.

“A post office was re-established in 1902 with the renaming of Devero to Norfork made official in 1906. The city was incorporated in 1910. Norfork was a center for the timber industry, which supplied the railroad with wooden ties. By 1910, Norfork had a hotel, a blacksmith, a gristmill, a barber, a butcher, a bank and several stores. Many sawmills operated in Norfork until the 1920s. As trees were harvested and not replaced, the timber industry declined. But the button blank industry grew as freshwater mussels were harvested from the riverbeds. A movie, ‘Souls Aflame,’ was filmed in Norfork in 1927, using many residents as extras and as minor characters in the Civil War drama.”

Norfork’s population was 224 in the 1920 census. In the most recent census in 2010, it had a population of 511 residents.

During the Great Depression, National Youth Administration and Works Progress Administration workers built four school buildings, which were used until the 1980s. A new bridge was constructed over the North Fork River in 1937.

Through it all, the Jacob Wolf House continued to stand. The house came under public ownership in the late 1930s, and local residents kept in up.

In the 1960s, Gerald L.K. Smith’s Elna M. Smith Foundation in Eureka Springs restored the house. Former Congressman Fuller spoke at the dedication ceremony on May 8, 1966.

Further restoration took place after the state awarded a courthouse restoration grant to the property in 1999. That restoration effort was completed in 2002.

On Oct. 4, 2016, the Baxter County Quorum Court transferred the property to the Department of Arkansas Heritage. It’s now operated as a state historic site.

It’s time to continue our trip south on Highway 5. Izard County and the historic White River community of Calico Rock beckon.

Post to Twitter

The Baxter County boom

Friday, February 8th, 2019

FIRST IN A SERIES

There has been a town of Mountain Home for decades. The city’s newspaper, The Baxter Bulletin, dates back to 1901.

For all practical purposes, however, the current version of Mountain Home is a youngster.

In the 1940 census, there were just 927 residents.

By 1960, the population had more than doubled to 2,105.

By 1980, there were 8,066 residents.

The current population is estimated at about 12,400 people.

“The fortunes of Mountain Home and the surrounding area dramatically changed in the 1940s and early 1950s with the building of the Norfork and Bull Shoals dams,” Clement Mulloy writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. “These dams were part of a federal project to dam the White River basin to provide flood control and hydroelectric power. The project, a smaller version of the Tennessee Valley Authority, was also intended to stimulate commerce and industry throughout the region. Norfork Dam was completed in 1944. Bull Shoals Dam, one of the largest dams in the nation, was completed in 1951. Both were dedicated on July 2, 1952, with President Harry Truman as the keynote speaker of the event.

“The construction of the dams was the most important event in the history of Mountain Home. The town was ideally situated about midway between the two projects. Formerly an isolated rural community with few businesses or paved streets and fewer employment opportunities, Mountain Home suddenly became a boomtown with workers attracted by high-paying government jobs moving into the area. New businesses were established and houses built. Farms in the county that had been abandoned during the Great Depression were reoccupied, safe from the threat of future flooding.”

Suddenly this remote mountain town was a draw for visitors from across the country, especially trout fishermen.

“The building of one of the largest fish hatcheries in the world at the base of Norfork Dam in 1957 has produced millions of trout, attracting countless fishermen,” Mulloy writes. “The area soon became known as the trout capital of the world. Many people vacationed in the area, taking advantage of the excellent fishing, hiking, water sports and beautiful scenery of the Ozarks. … As the largest community in the county, Mountain Home became the main beneficiary and soon became a vacation resort. Beginning in the 1950s and continuing into the 1960s, Mountain Home found a new role as a retirement community.”

What’s now Mountain Home first was known as Rapp’s Barren or Talbert’s Barren. When a post office was established in 1857, the name Mountain Home was used. Orrin Dodd and John Howard founded the Male and Female Academy there in the late 1850s.

“It quickly became the centerpiece of Mountain Home, and the town essentially grew up around it,” Mulloy writes. “The academy attracted students from the surrounding area, including southern Missouri.”

Mountain Home was officially incorporated in 1888. It continued to be known as the education center for this part of the Ozarks.

“In the late 19th century, a number of small Baptist colleges were established throughout Arkansas,” Mulloy writes. “Among these was the Mountain Home Baptist College, sometimes called the Gem of the Ozarks. Under the sponsorship of the White River Baptist Association, the college aimed to provide a ‘healthful and Christian’ education. Land and buildings were donated by local residents, and the school opened in 1893. During the 40 years of its existence, the college offered a variety of courses including history, French, Greek and vocational classes such as shorthand and typing. Its main focus was on teacher training, particularly after the Arkansas General Assembly passed a teacher certification act in 1893. Funding collapsed during the Depression, and the college closed in 1933.”

The combination of the Great Depression and the Great Drought of 1930-31 had a devastating effect on this area of Arkansas.

“Many people lost their farms and moved in search of jobs,” Mulloy writes. “Hobos hitching a ride along the local railroad in search of work became a common sight. Federal intervention in the form of President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal launched a number of programs that marked the first encounter many had with the national government. In particular, the Federal Emergency Relief Agency and the Civilian Conservation Corps saved many from starvation. One of the most important New Deal programs for Mountain Home was the Works Progress Administration. The WPA helped alleviate much of the unemployment in the area. Local WPA projects included the Henderson Bridge over the North Fork River, the Arkansas Highway 5 bridge at Norfork and the current courthouse in Mountain Home.”

What’s now Arkansas State University-Mountain Home, a two-year- college, can be tracked back to evening classes that were offered at Mountain Home High School in 1974 by the community college at Harrison.

“These classes were offered in the wake of the defeat of a five-mill tax for the construction of a community college in Mountain Home in 1973,” Mulloy writes. “As enrollment grew, permanent facilities were needed. With funds provided by the state and local community, the former First Baptist Church and adjoining McClure Chapel & Funeral Home were purchased in 1985. In the same year, the Baxter County Vocational-Technical Center was established as a satellite campus of North Arkansas College. The center later became the basis for the Mountain Home Technical College, founded as one of 13 two-year colleges created by the Arkansas General Assembly.”

The Mountain Home college became part of the ASU system on July 1, 1993.

“A special election was held on Oct. 19, 1993, to establish a tax district for the college,” Mulloy writes. “The two-mill property tax was passed with overwhelming support. ASU-Mountain Home was established on July 1, 1995, and Ed Coulter was hired as chancellor. The main question confronting the college was whether to remain in downtown Mountain Home or move to a different location. Although the interiors of the college buildings had been thoroughly renovated, the exteriors were unchanged. Due to congestion, a lack of parking and the difficulty of expansion, the decision was made to relocate the college.

“The search for a new location ended in 1996 with the purchase of 78 acres of pastureland on the edge of Mountain Home. This initial purchase was supplemented with adjoining property, and today’s campus sits on 135 contiguous acres. An official groundbreaking ceremony was held on April 8, 1998. Before construction began, a special committee composed of community leaders, faculty and students was formed to consider plans for the new campus. The committee visited about a dozen universities in the East, incorporating elements they liked into the campus master plan. The architectural design of the campus is modeled after the University of Virginia with the administration building, Roller Hall, taking its inspiration from the Rotunda.”

More than 1,000 people participated in a January 2000 march from the old campus to the new one. The first four campus buildings were fully endowed before construction began.

Baxter County was established in March 1873 and is named after Gov. Elisha Baxter. Its growth has paralleled that of the city of Mountain Home. The county’s population soared from 9,943 in the 1960 census to 41,513 in the 2010 census.

“Gov. Baxter formed Baxter County on March 24, 1873, in an election year when the outcome was in doubt because he wished to leave a lasting legacy,” Jane Andrewson writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “He chose a day when most of the legislators were at home. As a result, the representatives whose counties the new county would affect were unable to vote on the proposed new county or to veto the legislation. Baxter County was formed by taking a large part of Marion and Izard counties and smaller parts of Fulton and Searcy counties. The present-day boundary was fixed in 1881.

“Mountain Home was selected as the county seat at the time Baxter County was formed. Attempts to move the county seat to Cotter or Gassville in the early 1900s failed. An attempt was made again in the mid-1940s, but Cotter lost that battle too. The first attempt in 1910 was foiled by some missing ballot boxes. The city fathers in Mountain Home also found an Arkansas law stating that a courthouse with three floors cannot be moved. Mountain Home immediately added a third floor to its courthouse, though the building was torn down in the early 1940s and a new one was built by the WPA. When there was no longer a three-story courthouse in Mountain Home, another petition drive sought to move the county seat to Cotter, but it failed.”

The current courthouse, designed by Fayetteville architect T. Ewing Shelton, opened in August 1943. It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1995. Baxter County taxpayers footed about $51,000 of the $105,000 cost of construction with the WPA picking up the rest.

The White River has long played a role in the county’s development.

“Several severe floods occurred in the 1910s and 1920s,” Andrewson writes. “Dams were suggested by the people in the county, and various legislators discussed them for years before Norfork Dam was begun in 1941.”

The 722-mile-long White River begins in the mountains of northwest Arkansas and flows east toward Fayetteville before turning north. It enters southern Missouri and then flows southeast back into Arkansas. It transforms from a mountain stream into a slow Delta stream at about Batesville.

“The river’s meandering course lends itself to a variety of environments — from the seasonal, fast-flowing headwaters of the upper White to the wide, slower-moving stretches farther down the river,” Aaron Rogers writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas.

Trout aren’t native to the White River, of course. Those came with the construction of the dams, which release cold water.

“Private power companies had explored the possibility of building a dam at Wildcat Shoals above Cotter as early as 1902 but never began any work toward it,” Scott Branyan writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “Congress approved the construction of six reservoirs in the White River basin in the Flood Control Act of 1938. A U.S. Army Corps of Engineers report in 1930 had recommended the Wildcat Shoals site along with seven others as being the most effective of 13 investigated. However, in a 1940 report, the Corps presented the Bull Shoals site as an alternative to Wildcat Shoals, where unsuitable foundation conditions had been found. This report recommended the construction of Table Rock and Bull Shoals as multipurpose reservoirs for flood control, hydropower generation and ‘other beneficial purposes,’ concluding that the reservoir projects were economically justifiable.

“After the wartime construction of Norfork Dam by the Corps of Engineers on the tributary North Fork River in southern Baxter County from 1941-45, the construction of Bull Shoals Dam began in 1947. The dam length is 2,256 feet with a maximum height of 256 feet above the streambed. The spillway length is 808 feet. The dam contains 2.1 million cubic yards of concrete. At the time of its construction, Bull Shoals Dam was the fifth largest in the country, and its powerhouse was the largest building in Arkansas. Along with its 17 spillway gates, which are 40 feet by 29 feet, there are 16 outlet conduits that can each discharge 3,375 cubic feet per second. The flow of one of these conduits is roughly equivalent to one of the powerhouse’s eight generators running at full capacity.”

Construction of the powerhouse began in September 1950, and generation started two years later. The final two generating units were installed in 1963.

During his July 1952 visit, Truman took a shot at the politically powerful Arkansas Power & Light Co. for its long opposition to the federally subsidized rural electrification project.

“The completion of the dam and reservoir immediately began to affect the local economy,” Branyan writes. “Media coverage attracted attention to the region and resulted in the quick growth of the tourist industry. In 1940, there were only 13 businesses that provided overnight accommodations. By 1970, 300 such establishments could be found. Assessed taxable real estate values, per capita income and manufacturing payroll rose dramatically in the following decades.

“The dam put an end to long, multi-day fishing floats from Branson, Mo., to Cotter. Jim Owen of the Owen Boat Line had operated a float trip business on the river for many years. Largely through Owen’s promotion, the White River garnered a reputation for excellent smallmouth bass fishing. But the new reservoir soon offered equally excellent lake fishing for a number of warm-water species as well as stocked trout below the dam. Marinas, boat businesses and fishing guide services sprang up rapidly to handle the influx of anglers.”

One of those early entrepreneurs was Al Gaston, who created Gaston’s White River Resort at Lakeview in 1958. His son Jim Gaston inherited the business at age 20 in 1961. There were 20 acres, six small cottages and six boats at the so-called resort at the time. Jim Gaston would go on to become a legendary figure in the state’s tourism industry.

“Gaston expanded the operation significantly until it covered 400 acres with two miles of river frontage,” writes Arkansas historian Nancy Hendricks. “The complex includes 70 boats, 79 cottages and a 3,200-foot airstrip as well as a nationally famous restaurant. Gaston’s White River Resort also operates a conference lodge that seats up to 125 people. There’s a duck pond, game room, gift shop, playground, private club, swimming pool, tennis court and two nature trails. The resort has been recognized nationally.

“Gaston was an early advocate of tourism as an economic engine for the state of Arkansas, as well as a champion of conservation. He was an early supporter of Dale Bumpers, who became a lifelong friend. After Bumpers was elected governor in 1970, Gaston was Bumpers’ first appointment to the Arkansas Parks, Recreation and Travel Commission. Gaston served on the commission for many years before being named commissioner emeritus. … Gaston served as president of the Arkansas Tourism Development Foundation and president of the Arkansas Hospitality Association.”

Gaston died in July 2015, but Gaston’s White River Resort is going strong.

On the other side of the White River from the resort, the James A. Gaston Visitors Center for the Bull-Shoals White River State Park is one of the finest facilities of its type in the country.

In 1955, the state leased property along the lake and river from the Corps. Little was done with the property until 1975 when a wastewater treatment plant, bathhouses, paved roads and campsites were added. A section along the lake has picnic tables, a playground and a trail. The main section along the White River below the dam has campsites for tents and recreational vehicles, bathhouses, picnic areas, pavilions, playgrounds, a boat ramp and a trout dock.

The Corps’ six-lake White River system consists of four dams in Arkansas — Beaver on the White River, Bull Shoals on the White River, Norfork on the North Fork River and Greers Ferry on the Little Red River. It also consists of two dams in Missouri — Table Rock and Clearwater. It’s safe to say that no county in the White River basin has benefited more from these investments than the once rural, poor Baxter County.

Post to Twitter

The new Fort Smith

Friday, January 25th, 2019

EIGHTH IN A SERIES

It was an important day in the history of western Arkansas.

On Sept. 30, 1941, ground was broken between Fort Smith and Barling for what would become Fort Chaffee. War seemed imminent. The U.S. Department of War was determined to double the size of the U.S. Army and had paid almost $1.35 million to 712 property owners for 15,163 acres in far west Arkansas.

Chaffee eventually would cover more than 70,000 acres.

The first soldiers arrived in December 1941. From 1942-46, the 6th, 14th and 16th Armored Divisions trained there. Chaffee served as both a training camp and a prisoner of war camp during the war.

The 5th Armored Division called Chaffee home from 1948-57, and the name was changed from Camp Chaffee to Fort Chaffee in 1956.

In 1960-61, the 100th Infantry Division was headquartered at Chaffee. The fort was declared inactive in 1961 but would be used again through the years — as a test site for tactical defoliants during the Vietnam War, as a processing center for refugees from Southeast Asia in 1975-76, as a processing center for Cuban refugees in 1980, as the Army’s Joint Readiness Training Center from 1986-93.

In 1995, the Base Realignment and Closure Commission recommended the closure of Fort Chaffee. The federal government declared more than 6,000 acres as surplus property and turned them over for redevelopment. The Fort Chaffee Redevelopment Authority was established to find uses for that land.

In 2007, economic developer Ivy Owen moved from Mississippi to become executive director of the Fort Chaffee Redevelopment Authority. He had more than four decades of experience, including seven years with the Mississippi band of Choctaws.

A story about Owen in the 2017 edition of America’s Defense Communities said the developer “made friends with the tribal chief who cared more about what he could do than where he was from. He spent many nights in community meetings with an interpreter translating his smart growth and new urbanism concept and how they could benefit the tribe.”

“They were already pretty successful with a lot of industry, two huge casinos and two championship golf courses,” Owen told the publication. “They were also pretty clannish and didn’t like outsiders coming in and telling them how to design and implement a land-use program. It took seven years, but by the time I left, the council had approved the first smart-growth plan for an area adopted by any tribe in the nation.”

Ivy has had similar success at what’s now known as Chaffee Crossing. Construction crews seem to be everywhere these days.

“I never would have believed it 10 years ago,” Owen once told me in an interview. “You could have fired a shotgun through here in 2007 and not hit anyone. I think people in this region are finally seeing that this is really happening. The redevelopment of this acreage isn’t just a pipe dream anymore, and they know that. The thing that helped us most was when work began on the extension of future Interstate 49 through our property. People finally saw dirt flying around out here, and it was exciting.”

New residential subdivisions are springing up among the various businesses. There are 28 neighborhoods finished or planned, and authority officials say there soon will be 2,900 housing units (ranging from apartments to single-family homes) on the grounds.

Chaffee Crossing is now marketing itself as “the economic engine of western Arkansas.”

In June 2017, employees began moving into the ArcBest corporate offices that had been under construction for two years. The 200,000-square-foot building will house 1,000 people. It cost $32 million. ArcBest purchased 70 acres from the authority to accommodate future expansions.

In August 2017, the Arkansas College of Osteopathic Medicine welcomed its first class of 162 students. In November 2009, Sparks Health System (now part of Baptist Health) was sold for $136 million to a company then known as Health Management Associates. Once liabilities were settled, there was $62 million remaining in the Degen Foundation’s (Sparks’ charitable arm that wasn’t a part of the sale) account.

Work began on a three-story building in February 2015. Students were recruited from across the country.

The parent of the Arkansas College of Osteopathic Medicine is the Arkansas Colleges of Health Education. The health complex covers 228 acres. The 102,000-square-foot building that houses the Arkansas College of Osteopathic Medicine cost $34 million to complete. The college will have 600 students once all four classes are filled.

An 84-unit apartment complex was built adjacent to the medical school so students could walk to class. Neighborhoods and retail shops will be added on the 228 acres as additional programs are launched. An $11 million residential and retail project known as Heritage Village is being built directly across the street from the medical school.

Last May, ground was broken for a $25 million facility that will house doctor of physical therapy, doctor of occupational therapy and physician’s assistant programs. Those programs will result in 30 new faculty positions. The new building covers 66,000 square feet. A $15 million anonymous gift in June 2017 helped make the second building possible. The first students are expected in the building in August 2020.

It has gotten so busy in the area that Kyle Parker, the president and chief executive officer of ACHE, is pressing for a stoplight at the intersection of Chad Colley Boulevard and Frontier Road. About 2,600 people a day now come to Chaffee Crossing for jobs.

In 2016, Glatfelter, a Pennsylvania-based company, purchased the former Mitsubishi Power Systems building for a facility producing absorbent papers used in personal hygiene products. That resulted in more than 80 jobs.

Also in 2016, Mars PetCare announced a $72 million expansion that added 130 jobs to the 250 people who already were working for Mars.

In 2012, 2016 and 2017, the Fort Chaffee Redevelopment Authority received the John Lynch Base Redevelopment Excellence Award from the Association of Defense Communities. Michael Cooper, the Association of Defense Communities president, called Chaffee Crossing “one of the greatest redevelopment community success stories across the country.”

Authority officials say that total capital investment at Chaffee Crossing is now more than $1.5 billion.

“We’ve just about run out of big pieces of property,” Owen told me. “We’ve been selling property so quickly that it’s hard to keep up. We started out with just more than 6,000 acres, and we’re now down to just more than 1,000 acres that we can sell. With more people living here, the next thing you’ll see is a lot more retail. Once we’ve sold all of the property, the Fort Chaffee Redevelopment Authority will go away and the assets will be split between Sebastian County, the city of Barling and the city of Fort Smith. I can tell you that we’re viewed across the country as a model for what should be done with closed bases. Things just came together for us in recent years. It has been the perfect storm.”

The authority derives revenue from land sales, leases and even railcar storage. It partners with Fort Smith and Barling on infrastructure projects.

Longtime Fort Smith journalist Judith Hansen told America’s Defense Communities: “Everyone wondered whether Ivy would be able to pull it off, but he has been there the longest and done the most with it. Before he arrived, the land was so open and empty that I used to give my kids driving lessons out there. Now, there’s manufacturing, light industry, retail, restaurants, housing, schools and nonprofits — and there’s still so much building going on that, as Ivy will say, ‘If you haven’t been to Chaffee Crossing this week, it’s as though you haven’t been here.’ I don’t know where folks are taking their kids for driving lessons now.”

She said Owen “sought a variety of perspectives and was willing to consider different options that would benefit the people throughout the region, not just Fort Smith. He also had the patience to wait for the right opportunities to come along rather than just jumping into projects that wouldn’t be the right fit.”

Not all of this success story involves new construction. Part of it has to do with attracting tenants for old base structures that are being repurposed for commercial uses. Hundreds of buildings were demolished after the federal Base Realignment and Closure Commission recommended the permanent closure of Fort Chaffee in 1995. Several buildings that once were part of the fort, however, are now being renovated.

Businesses have taken notice.

Ivy told America’s Defense Communities: “One of the first requests I made of the authority’s board after I was hired was for $40,000 to design a historic district around the Elvis building, which has become a major tourist attraction, drawing people from all over the world. I didn’t think they would give me the money — and the project wound up costing three times what I asked for — but they let me go out on a limb. Fortunately, I didn’t break it.”

It was March 25, 1958, and Elvis Presley was being given a buzz cut at Fort Chaffee after having been inducted into the U.S. Army.

Asked by reporters what he thought about having to give up his famous sideburns, Presley said: “Hair today, gone tomorrow.”

The quote was printed in newspapers across the country the next day. And the haircut is still celebrated at the Chaffee Barbershop Museum.

“We opened that museum in 2008 after restoring the room to look just like it did in March 1958, and since then we’ve had visitors from 40 states and 15 foreign countries,” Owen said. “It has been a hit since the first day the doors were open.”

A second museum, the Museum of Chaffee History, attracts additional visitors. Displays chronicle the fort’s role in five wars along with resettlement operations that have occurred there. More than 50,000 Vietnamese refugees were processed at Fort Chaffee in 1975-76. More than 20,000 Cuban refugees were processed there from 1980-82. In 2005, the fort was called back into duty to host evacuees following hurricanes Katrina and Rita. More than 10,000 people from coastal areas of Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas were housed in empty barracks.

The Fort Chaffee Redevelopment Authority has created four small districts within its larger Fort Chaffee Historic District.

The Legacy District houses the museums along with businesses in renovated barracks and administrative buildings.

The Enterprise District will cater to businesses that require more parking spaces and greater visibility.

The Warehouse District has a furniture store, a microbrewery, restaurants and commercial office space.

The Memorial District will feature a walking path and interpretive panels.

There are also attractions outside the Historic District that draw visitors to Chaffee Crossing. In 2006, the Arkansas Game & Fish Commission put one of its four nature centers at Chaffee Crossing (the other three are in Little Rock, Jonesboro and Pine Bluff). The Janet Huckabee Arkansas River Nature Center is a 14,000-square-foot facility with 170 surrounding acres that are used to interpret the natural environment of the Arkansas River Valley. There’s a 12-acre manmade lake and numerous trails. The center attracted more than 80,000 people during its first year of operation.

In 2011, the McClure Amphitheater, which was built by soldiers in the 1950s, was restored at a cost of $160,000. The amphitheater now hosts everything from family reunions to small entertainment productions.

Back at ACHE, Parker believes the complex has the potential of transforming Fort Smith from the manufacturing center of the state to a place where science, technology and intellectual capital play leading roles.

“Those of us on the Sparks board began asking what we could do to improve the health of people in this state,” Parker told me. “The thing we were told over and over is that we should begin a school of osteopathic medicine and then place our graduates in towns throughout Arkansas. We then began to visit schools across the country. We asked the heads of those schools what they would do differently if they were starting from scratch. That led us to build one of the most modern medical schools in the world.”

Osteopathic physicians (also known as D.O.s) can become fully licensed physicians who are able to practice medicine and surgery in all 50 states. Their training is much the same as that given to the medical doctors coming out of schools such as the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences at Little Rock with the exception of an increased emphasis in schools of osteopathic medicine on the physical manipulation of muscle tissues and bones.

Parker, a 1980 graduate of Arkansas Tech University at Russellville, received his law degree from the Franklin Pierce Law Center in New Hampshire in 1985. A technology buff, Parker wrote the first artificial intelligence software ever granted a registered copyright for the legal profession while he was still in law school.

In 1989, Parker digitized Arkansas legal case opinions along with statutory and regulatory laws and released a legal CD-ROM known as CaseBase. By 1994, he had created the first searchable legal information Internet site at loislaw.com.

His company LOIS (for Law Office Information Systems) grew to almost 700 employees and went public in 1999. The company helped revolutionize legal research. In 2001, it was sold to an Amsterdam-based publishing company. LOIS clients included more than 23,000 law firms, every accredited law school in the country and most courts. Parker then joined that publishing company, Wolters Kluwer, as its executive vice president of business development and strategic planning.

Tired of the corporate rat race, Parker entered higher education in 2009 as the vice chancellor of technology at the University of Arkansas at Fort Smith. He became the school’s vice chancellor of operations a year later.

“Our faculty members have come from 15 states, and they love it here,” Parker says of ACHE. “We assured them that we’re here for the long haul, and when they saw how advanced this building is, they believed us. We’re also trying to get our students to fall in love with the state. We want them to stay and practice here.

Parker hopes eventually to have four buildings around a landscaped quadrangle.

Chaffee Crossing isn’t the only place where Fort Smith is changing these days. The city’s old downtown also is being revived.

I had lunch recently with two of the leaders of the downtown revitalization efforts, Trent Goins and Steve Clark. They’re intent on fulfilling the late Bill Neumeier’s goal of transforming downtown Fort Smith into a regional dining and entertainment destination. Neumeier died Nov. 19 at age 54 after a long battle with depression. The cause of death was suicide.

Goins heads poultry producer O.K. Foods. The company was founded by his great-grandfather, Collier Wenderoth Sr., in 1933. The business grew under the later leadership of Collier Wenderoth Jr. and son-in-law Randy Goins, Trent Goins’ father.

Trent Goins didn’t immediately go into the poultry business after college. He began his career on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C., handling agricultural issues for then-Congressman Marion Berry. Goins returned to Fort Smith and joined the family business in 2002.

Collier Wenderoth Jr. died in 2011, and O.K. Foods was sold later that year for more than $90 million to Mexican conglomerate Industrias Bachoco. Goins stayed with the company as its senior vice president of sales and marketing. When the president and chief executive officer of O.K. Foods left in February 2014, the Mexican owners asked Goins to take the job.

Clark, meanwhile, was born in the Dallas area. His family moved to Roland, Okla., which is just across the state line from Fort Smith, when Clark was in the fifth grade. Clark graduated from the University of Arkansas with a degree in finance in 1986. Two decades ago, he founded a logistical company known as Propak Corp. The company now has almost 2,000 employees with 60 of them working in a historic downtown Fort Smith building that was renovated by Clark. Propak has received national recognition for its supply chain management solutions.

Neumeier opened a downtown Fort Smith diner known as Coney Island in 1988. Goins has fond memories of going there with his grandfather.

“He would buy us both a hot dog and then take food to his employees,” Goins said. “Bill’s businesses grew from there. I came back to Fort Smith at the right time because people like Bill were already bringing life back to downtown.”

In 1990, Coney Island added the Downtown Pizza Wagon. In 1994, the business grew into the Coney Island Beer Garden at 817 Garrison Ave. The first touring act — Poppa Chubby — played there the next year. Neumeier added a stage in 1996, and the place became known for its live entertainment. In 2009, the business became Neumeier’s Rib Room & Beer Garden.

At 508 Garrison Avenue, Neumeier started Papa’s Pub and Pizzaria. Neumeier sold the 817 Garrison Ave. location three years ago to a group who turned it into The Sound Room. The Rib Room then moved to its current location at 424 Garrison Ave.

Neumeier began the Riverfront Blues Festival in 1991 on a flatbed trailer stage on the banks of the Arkansas River. In 2015, he helped Goins and Gosey start the Peacemaker Arts & Music Festival in downtown Fort Smith. That annual festival has brought the likes of Jason Isbell and Ray Wylie Hubbard to town.

The Rib Room is filled with music memorabilia. The room housing the bar is decorated solely with Rolling Stones items that Neumeier collected.

“Bill saw this as his rock ‘n’ roll barbecue joint,” Goins told me. “Musicians loved hanging out in here because Bill treated them like royalty. Fort Smith has a great reputation among performers because of Bill.”

Goins talked excitedly about plans for the restaurant and its outdoor patio, where live performances will resume in the spring.

After lunch, we crossed Garrison and visited Harry’s Downtown, a venue that Gosey opened last August. Gosey also owns AJ’s Oyster House downtown. He named his most recent venture in honor of the late Harry Schwartz, who operated a restaurant known as Harry’s Hamburger Barn back when there were few dining options along the avenue. The music venue will hold almost 200 people.

Clark stressed the need to make Garrison — the widest city street in the state — more friendly for pedestrians. He also listed potential new businesses along the avenue such as a distillery. In numerous speeches, Clark has urged Fort Smith residents to quit being jealous about what has happened in Washington and Benton counties and instead come up with ideas that will put Fort Smith on the map.

“We can’t match the resources of the Walton family and what that has brought to northwest Arkansas,” Clark said. “We can’t build a Crystal Bridges in Fort Smith. In a way, though, that’s liberating. We’re forced to try new things that bring energy to the city and engage its people. The things happening here are genuine and authentic. They’re uniquely Fort Smith. We now have people who aren’t from here looking to make investments downtown.”

Clark hopes to spread the activity from Garrison into surrounding neighborhoods.

“Downtown is more than just Garrison Avenue,” he said. “We should think of Garrison as the backbone and the side streets as the ribs. People with vision built this city back when it was on the American frontier. We let that spirit become dormant for a time, but we’re now back on the right track.”

In 2015, the Sam Walton College of Business at the University of Arkansas named Clark as its Entrepreneur of the Year. Clark is behind 64.6 Downtown, the nonprofit group that’s helping transform the city. He’s also behind The Unexpected, the festival that has brought artists from around the world to Fort Smith.

Speaking last year to the Fort Smith Downtown Business Association, Clark said: “When Whirlpool left, we sat around for a while thinking that maybe that wasn’t what was really going on, that maybe we had just fallen asleep, that it was a bad dream and that it would all take care of itself. Once you cross the bridge intellectually that there is no cavalry coming to save us economically, you’re going to have to fight a little harder and do the things for yourself that maybe historically you waited on others — the city, civic leaders, whatever — to do for you.”

He was asked why he came up with The Unexpected, which has led to 33 works of art being produced on the sides of buildings across town during the past five years and has attracted international media attention to Fort Smith.

“Because that is the kind of city I want to live in,” Clark told the downtown business group. “If you want to live in a city that has trails, that celebrates the arts or music or anything that makes the city rich in culture — if you’re waiting on someone to do that, stop. Find a way to get engaged. Plug in.”

As we dug into our barbecue that day at Neumeier’s, Clark said to me: “Art is a powerful thing.”

He then looked down the table at Goins. Clark wanted an Unexpected artist to paint murals on an old feed mill that O.K. owns downtown. Goins resisted at first, thinking of reasons why it wouldn’t be a good idea.

“Trent is a compelling debater,” Clark said. “But on that day, I was better.”

The work of Guido van Helten on the silos at the feed mill now draws visitors from across the country. He painted for two weeks in September 2016. Portrayed on the towers are three locals — Gene “Beck” Beckham, Edward Paradela and Kristina Jones. Beckham worked for O.K. for more than 70 years beginning in the 1940s.

In a documentary by fellow Australian Selina Miles, van Helten said of his art: “Before I create a work, I really want to learn about the people who live there. I want to really try and develop a work that speaks to them and belongs there even though I don’t belong there.”

When the work was finished in 2016, Goins said: “Gene spent more than 40 years working at this feed mill, and he embodies the spirit of our employees, both past and present. … While our feed mill has stood as an economic contributor to the area for more than 50 years, it can now shine as a cultural inspiration that celebrates our community’s past, present and future.”

I picked up a copy of the Times Record, the local newspaper, after lunch that day and noticed that all three front-page stories had to do with downtown development.

The first story noted that the Fort Smith Board of Directors voted 6-1 in favor of holding a March special election on a 1-cent sales tax. The tax would run from July 1, 2019, until March 31, 2020. The nine-month tax would generate $17 million that’s needed to complete the U.S. Marshals Museum on the banks of the Arkansas River.

The second story covered a special meeting of 64.6 Downtown that was held the previous day at Propak headquarters. The meeting gave the public a chance to meet sculptor Spencer Schubert of Kansas City, who will create three statues for the new Gateway Park at the intersection of Garrison and Rogers avenues.

The third story was about the Central Business Improvement District’s request that the Fort Smith Police Department provide bike patrols downtown.

Clark is as responsible as anyone for this renewed focus on downtown. He was raised in the Fort Smith area and is committed to the city. In addition to founding Propak, Clark was a founder of the digital media company Rockfish Interactive, which was sold in 2016.

“Rockfish taught me that you have to be a lifelong learner,” Clark told the online publication Backstory 40. “Gone are the days when you can graduate from college and you’re through. You have to expect to remake yourself several times throughout the course of your career. We cannot rest on what we have done. We must constantly be remaking ourselves.”

While remaking himself, Clark is remaking the old blue-collar city of Fort Smith.

“That’s what you’re supposed to do, isn’t it?” he told Backstory 49. “You’re supposed to make things better if you can. We have a right to be as good as we can be.”

Post to Twitter

From Waldron to Fort Smith

Wednesday, January 23rd, 2019

SEVENTH IN A SERIES

We head north out of Waldron on U.S. Highway 71 on this cold morning and soon find ourselves in Sebastian County, which saw its population double from 62,809 in the 1950 census to 125,744 in the 2010 census.

It’s one of those counties with two county seats — Fort Smith and Greenwood — and we’ll be in both cities later in the day.

The Arkansas Legislature created Sebastian County in January 1851 and named it after U.S. Sen. William King Sebastian. Greenwood was created to serve as the county seat. The county seat was moved to Fort Smith three years later. In 1861, the Legislature divided the county into two judicial districts with both cities as county seats.

For a time, Sebastian County was home to some of the state’s largest coal-mining operations.

“Coal had been mined on a limited scale in Arkansas starting in the late 1840s in Johnson County, but coal was discovered in the Greenwood area in the 1870s and swiftly became the county’s chief industry, attracting not only investors but also immigrants of all varieties, especially eastern Europeans,” writes Guy Lancaster for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. “That same decade, railroads arrived in Fort Smith with the Little Rock & Fort Smith Railroad being completed in 1876, thus providing a convenient means of transporting coal out of the county.

“In 1889, the Iron Mountain & Southern Railroad constructed a line between Greenwood and Fort Smith. The St. Louis-San Francisco Railway reached Fort Smith in 1883, and the Kansas City Southern gave Fort Smith even greater national connections, just as it did the small town of Bonanza, which grew up around a mine established in 1896. In the late 1880s, the Little Rock & Texas Railway laid down track between the two communities of Coop Prairie and Chocoville on the border with Scott County, resulting in the merger of the two into the city of Mansfield.”

Mansfield became a hub for the shipment of coal. Natural gas was discovered in 1887, and commercial development of the gas fields began near Mansfield in 1902.

As was the case in other parts of the country with coal mining, there were sometimes violent strikes in the county.

“The United Mine Workers organized strikes in 1888 and 1894,” Lancaster writes. “By 1903, the UAW had finally succeeded in obtaining a closed-shop contract from local operators. This agreement lasted until 1914 when mine owner Franklin Bache tried to open a non-union mine. On April 6, 1914, miners and their sympathizers succeeded in shutting down the mine temporarily and driving off the non-union workers, but tensions continued to rise. In July, union miners battled with company guards at the site of one of Bache’s mines while other mines in the area were dynamited during what has come to be called the Sebastian County Union War.”

A steep drop in prices led to a decline of the coal industry following 1925.

The county received a boost in 1941, however, when Camp Chaffee was established. It was renamed Fort Chaffee in 1956.

“Though the creation of Camp Chaffee provided something of an economic stimulus to the county during the war, rural parts of the county faced a crisis as returning soldiers found few jobs in their hometowns,” Lancaster writes. “Residents of Lavaca found a way out of this crisis by growing what was called the Lavacaberry, a boysenberry-raspberry hybrid that proved popular not just with local consumers but also wholesalers. However, competition from out-of-state growers resulted in most farmers turning to other crops by the late 1950s.

“Postwar economic troubles weren’t limited to rural areas. Camp Chaffee’s occasional deactivation and reactivation led Fort Smith’s leaders to attract a diverse array of industry so that the city’s economy would not be so dependent upon the military installation. In the 1950s and 1960s, they were successful in luring numerous manufacturers to the city.”

We roll into Mansfield, which is just 10 miles east of the Oklahoma state line.

Coop Prairie was established in 1849. A trading post, the Coop Prairie Cumberland Presbyterian Church and the Coop Prairie Cemetery were there.

Chocoville was established in 1851 about four miles to the west when a post office opened there.

The Little Rock & Texas Railway’s decision to run its tracks between the two communities led to the August 1888 merger into Mansfield.

“Many believe that the town’s name was coined by a line surveyor who, at the end of the day, reported he had gotten as far as some ‘man’s field,'” Jack James writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “According to local legend, references continued to be made to the ‘man’s field’ until the name stuck. A more likely story gives the name in honor of William W. Mansfield, who served on the Arkansas Supreme Court.”

Mansfield boomed as a center of the coal-mining industry.

“At one point, it adopted the slogan ’50 Buildings in 50 Days’ to spur construction,” James writes. “The depots swarmed with passenger traffic while hotels and restaurants were established to serve the growing area’s needs. J.W. Harper is credited with the first building in Mansfield — Bowman Hall, a two-story building, the ground floor of which was occupied by the Methodist Episcopal Church and the second floor by the Masons.

“Cotton fields prospered, as did the lumber business. Arkansas’ first commercial gas fields were discovered south of Mansfield in 1902, drilled by the Choctaw Oil & Gas Co. This brought the first industry to the area. The Mansfield Brick Co. was founded and provided bricks to local buildings for many years. Signs of that industry still remain. By 1905, the town had four dry goods stores, three groceries, four hotels, two blacksmiths, one drugstore, a bank and a livery stable.

“Prosperity came to a close around 1925 due to a decline in coal prices and an increase in the cost of production. The coal industry began cutting jobs. The Great Depression compounded the hard times, and many families were forced to leave the area in search of work. Not all left, though. In 1930, because of its superior educational facilities, Mansfield became the parent school for the entire area. Young men went to work on National Youth Administration and Works Progress Administration projects that built local bridges and schools. The building of a road to the top of nearby Poteau Mountain provided employment for many.”

Highway 71 forced the Coop Prairie Church to move. “Ripley’s Believe It or Not” later would note that its cemetery was the only one in the country with a U.S. highway running through it.

Many area men were involved in building Camp Chaffee.

“Trucks carrying supplies and increased traffic along Highway 71 resulted in the building of small diners and motels,” James writes. “When the coal mining in nearby Huntington and Hartford began to wane, Mansfield persisted as a town due to local natural gas reserves. … With an abundance of lumber from the Ouachita National Forest, Mansfield remains a major player in the lumber production business.”

In 2004, an expanded high school was built near the old Chocoville site.

We continue north on Highway 71, taking a right onto Arkansas Highway 10 for the short trip into Greenwood, a place many of us know now as one of the high school football capitals of Arkansas. The population of Greenwood has exploded from just 3,317 in the 1980 census to a current estimated population of 9,500.

Sebastian County commissioners held a meeting in January 1851 to discuss building a county seat on the banks of Vache Grasse Creek. In March, the commissioners decided to name the town in honor of Judge Burton Greenwood. It was a fertile area for farming, which attracted black residents to Greenwood at the end of the Civil War. Greenwood, however, later gained the reputation as a sundown town, and blacks left the area. They were replaced by German, Italian, Irish, Scottish and Russian immigrants who came to work in the coal mines between 1880 and 1920. The railroad came to town in 1887 and was used to ship out coal, peaches and cotton.

The Greenwood business district was destroyed by an August 1922 fire. New buildings were constructed of native stone in the years that followed, but the business district was destroyed again by a 1968 tornado that left 13 dead.

Nearby Fort Chaffee has played many roles through the years — Army training facility, prisoner of war camp, refugee center. The more than 60,000 acres that remain part of the fort are used these days by the National Guard as a training facility.

“Groundbreaking for what was then Camp Chaffee was held on Sept. 20, 1941, as part of the Department of War’s preparations to double the size of the U.S. Army in the face of imminent war,” Maranda Radcliff writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “That month, the U.S. government paid $1.35 million to acquire 15,163 acres from 712 property owners, including families, farms, businesses, churches, schools and other government agencies.

“The camp was named after Maj. Gen. Adna R. Chaffee Jr., an artillery officer who determined in Europe during World War I that the cavalry was outmoded. Unlike other cavalry officers, Chaffee advocated for the use of tanks. It took only 16 months to build the base. The first soldiers arrived on Dec. 7, 1941, the day the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. The installation was activated on March 27, 1942. From 1942-46, the 6th, 14th and 16th Armored Divisions trained there. During World War II, it served as both a training camp and a prisoner of war camp.”

Almost 3,000 German prisoners were housed at Camp Chaffee at one point.

The re-designation as Fort Chaffee came on March 21, 1956.

“In 1958, Chaffee was home to it most famous occupant, Elvis Presley,” Radcliff writes. “Presley received his first military haircut in Building 803. In 1959, the ‘Home of the U.S. Army Training Center, Field Artillery’ moved from Fort Chaffee to Fort Sill, Okla., where it remains. From 1960-61, the fort was the home of the 100th Infantry Division. In 1961, Fort Chaffee was declared inactive and place on caretaker status, though it was reactivated again later that year and on several other occasions through 1974. During the Vietnam War, the fort was used as a test site for tactical defoliants like Agent Orange.”

Chaffee was busy again in 1975-76. It was used to process 50,809 refugees from the war in Vietnam. A number of those refugees ended up living in the Fort Smith area.

In May 1980, Chaffee became a resettlement center for Cubans picked up from the port of Mariel. Rioting erupted three weeks later. Dozens of state troopers were brought in, tear gas was used, two buildings were burned and the story received national media attention. Republican Frank White attacked Gov. Bill Clinton for not standing up to the federal government in an attempt to keep the Cubans out of Arkansas. Many political analysts later said the issue played a role in White’s upset victory over Clinton that November.

Chaffee wound up processing 25,390 Cubans.

“In 1987, the Joint Readiness Training Center began training soldiers at Chaffee,” Radcliff writes. “The center was transferred to Fort Polk, La., in 1993. In 1995, the Base Realignment and Closure Commission recommended the closure of Fort Chaffee. The recommendation was approved with the condition that minimum essential ranges, facilities and training areas were maintained as a training enclave. On Sept. 28, 1995, Fort Chaffee became a sub-installation of Fort Sill. In late 1995, the federal government declared 7,192 of Fort Chaffee’s 76,075 acres to be surplus and turned the land over to the state. The remaining acres were turned over to the Arkansas National Guard for use as a training facility.”

The change-of-command ceremony took place on Sept. 27, 1997, as command was transferred from the U.S. Army to the Arkansas Army National Guard.

The Fort Chaffee Redevelopment Authority was established to redevelop the land turned over to the state. Chaffee Crossing is now a successful area of commercial and industrial projects along with residential neighborhoods.

In 2005, empty barracks at the site were used to house evacuees from Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita. More than 10,000 people from Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas came through the facility.

“Fort Chaffee has a rich military history, but it also has a bit of Hollywood history,” Radcliff writes. “In 1984, the movie ‘A Soldiers Story’ starring Howard Rollins Jr. was shot at Fort Chaffee. Four years later, the Neil Simon movie ‘Biloxi Blues’ starring Matthew Broderick was filmed there. The most recent visit from Hollywood was in 1995 for ‘The Tuskegee Airmen’ with Laurence Fishburne and Cuba Gooding Jr.”

We make our way into Fort Smith, the state’s second-largest city and one of the most historic cities in the region.

“The Arkansas River Valley provided fertile bottomland to early settlers,” writes historian Ben Boulden. “Belle Point, a river bluff along the Arkansas River just north of its juncture with the Poteau River, afforded an excellent vantage point looking west and a defensible position for the first Fort Smith military post. In November 1817, the first American troops arrived at Belle Point and began building the first structures. The principal purpose of the fort was to keep the peace between the Osage and Cherokee tribes that had entered the area, as was the Fort Smith Council, a meeting held between Indian and territorial leaders in 1822. Around the fort, a small settlement began forming, taking its name from the fort that, in turn, was named for Gen. Thomas A. Smith, the military district’s commander.

“In 1822, John Rogers arrived and established himself as a supplier to the fort and as a trader with Native Americans, trappers and other settlers. The Army abandoned the fort and moved west to establish Fort Gibson in the Indian Territory (later Oklahoma). In the 1830s, Congress funded several military roads, including the Fort Smith to Jackson Road, to improve transportation in territorial Arkansas. By 1836, the Army returned and began building the second Fort Smith military post. Rogers lobbied successfully for the military’s return. Because of his strong association with both forts and his early effort to promote the town, many consider him to be the founder of the city of Fort Smith.”

Fort Smith was later a center for outfitting those heading to California in 1848-49 and for those fighting in the Mexican War from 1846-48.

“Fort Smith became increasingly central to communications on the frontier and beyond as stage, steamboat and mail transportation networks matured,” Boulden writes.

Federal troops abandoned the garrison at Fort Smith shortly before Arkansas seceded at the start of the Civil War, but they returned in September 1863.

“After the war, forces out of Fort Smith worked to restore order to the countryside and rural areas of western Arkansas,” Boulden writes. “Military farm colonies were established in an effort to help refugees become self-sufficient. The city also was the site of the Fort Smith Conference of 1865, a gathering of federal and tribal representatives for the the purpose of negotiating the terms under which the former Confederate Indian nations could resume their relationship with the United States.”

In the 1870s, the federal courts for the Western District of Arkansas moved from Van Buren to Fort Smith.

“Judge William Story presided over the court but was replaced in May 1875 by Judge Isaac C. Parker, a former congressman from Missouri,” Boulden writes. “Parker’s judgeship lasted until just before his death in 1896 and marks one of the most celebrated periods in Fort Smith history. U.S. marshals and deputy marshals headquartered in Fort Smith not only enforced the law in western Arkansas but also in the frequently lawless neighboring Indian Territory.

“In the city of Fort Smith, the late 19th century marked a period of booming growth in which the population nearly tripled, commercial trading expanded and Garrison Avenue became the wholesale and retail center of the region. Railroad transportation arrived in the 1870s, giving the city an important alternative to the Arkansas River. Much of the city’s history until the onset of the Great Depression is a story of the growth (albeit in fits and starts) of its economy and culture. An electric streetcar network within the city grew as the city did. Between 1907 and 1924, the city became one of the few in U.S. history to not only legalize but also regulate prostitution in a restricted district (known as the Row).”

The discovery of natural gas in the area, the growth of the furniture industry and the 1922 completion of a bridge over the Arkansas River at the west end of Garrison Avenue led to further growth. Fort Smith’s population grew from 11,587 in the 1900 census to 71,626 in the 1980 census.

Through the years, Fort Smith became the state’s manufacturing center. Whirlpool employed almost 4,600 people there as recently as 2004. American manufacturing slowed, and those Whirlpool jobs are now all gone.

The most recent Census Bureau estimates show Fort Smith with a population of about 88,000. Rather than worrying about how to keep up with the growth in Washington and Benton counties, a new generation of Fort Smith leaders is forging an identity for the city. That will be the subject of the next post.

Post to Twitter

From Mena to Waldron

Wednesday, January 16th, 2019

SIXTH IN A SERIES

We’re in the Ouachita National Forest soon after leaving Mena. We’re heading north on U.S. Highway 71.

It originally was known as the Arkansas National Forest and was created when President Teddy Roosevelt issued an executive order on Dec. 18, 1907. Gifford Pinchot headed the U.S. Forest Service at the time (he was the first director) and commented that it was the only major shortleaf pine forest being protected by the federal government.

The national forest was created mostly from public domain lands south of the Arkansas River. What was known as the Weeks Law in 1911 authorized the federal government to purchase forests in the eastern part of the country. From 1933-41, there was a massive expansion of the system as the government attempted to renew cutover and farmed-out lands.

The name of the Arkansas National Forest was changed to the Ouachita National Forest in 1926. In 1930, the national forest was extended into eastern Oklahoma. The Ouachita National Forest now consists of almost 1.8 million acres in 12 Arkansas and two Oklahoma counties. It’s the largest and oldest national forest in the South with almost 60 recreational areas, several scenic byways and hundreds of miles of trails.

After passing through Acorn in Polk County, we enter Scott County. Much of this county is national forest land. Scott County had just 11,233 residents in the 2010 census, down from a population of 14,302 a century earlier.

“The county name was selected to honor Territorial Supreme Court Justice Andrew Scott,” Wes Goodner writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. “The act of the Territorial General Assembly that created the county in 1833 provided that the residence of Walter Cauthron, located near what’s now Booneville in Logan County, would serve as the ‘temporary seat of justice.’ In 1836, faced with choosing a county seat of a more permanent nature, commissioners chose the community of Cauthron and proceeded to establish a courthouse. Because of numerous redefinitions of Scott County’s boundaries, this site of Cauthron is now within present-day Logan County and is not the present-day Scott County community known as Cauthron.

“In 1840, popular opinion demanded that the county seat be in a more central location, and the community of Winfield, located about two miles northeast of present-day Waldron, was selected. This Winfield shouldn’t be confused with the present-day community with the same name.”

William G. Featherston settled near what’s now Waldron in the 1830s. He was a business owner and postmaster with the post office on his property going by the name of Poteau Valley.

“In 1845, Featherston offered 10 acres of his land for a town to serve as the county seat,” Goodner writes. “His offer of land was accepted, and owing in no small part to the poor road system to and from Winfield, the county seat was moved to what’s now known as Waldron. The land was later surveyed and a plat was designed by John P. Waldron, for whom Waldron is named. Following the establishment of Waldron as the county seat, several years of relative prosperity, progress and calm followed with the development of a merchant presence, hotels and facilities of county government.”

There wasn’t much fighting in Scott County during the Civil War, but Reconstruction proved to be a violent, controversial process, leading to a series of events known as the Waldron War. More on that later.

“As Reconstruction ended, a period of relative quiet and tranquility began,” Goodner writes. “The turn of the century brought railroads, a short-lived coal mining industry, cotton crops and a successful merchant district in downtown Waldron. In spite of difficulties and hardships, growth was sustained, if modest, even in the turbulent times of World War I and the stock market catastrophe. The local economy was buffered somewhat by the railroads, coal, cotton and the timber industry and was aided by the Depression-era relief measures, particularly the Works Progress Administration and the Civilian Conservation Corps.

“The post-World War II era brought manufacturing jobs — primarily the crafting of furniture, milling of lumber and poultry production — while maintaining a solid merchant district along Main Street in Waldron. The largest employer in the county is the poultry industry. … With the coming of larger chain establishments, the commercial district of Waldron has shifted from Main Street to areas along the nearby Highway 71 bypass. With the installation of street lamps, a conservation easement and renovations to the historic former courthouse, efforts have been made to renovate and revitalize the downtown area.”

We pass through Y City as we drive north on Highway 71. When I was a boy growing up in Arkadelphia, we would take what I called the “back route” to Fayetteville. We would wind our way west through Alpine, Amity, Glenwood, Caddo Gap, Norman, Mount Ida and Pencil Bluff before connecting with Highway 71 at Y City. On trips when we left early in the morning, we would stop for breakfast at a place here called the Midway before heading north on Highway 71 to Fayetteville.

The next community we pass through is Boles, which is nine miles south of Waldron. Boles is along the Fourche La Fave River.

“In the 1860s, the Boles family settled in the community that would eventually be named after it,” Ty Richardson writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “The community was originally called Stringtown. The origin of the name comes from the first settler’s boat being strung up and down the banks of the Fourche La Fave River. Travel by boat was likely easier at the time than using wilderness trails. By 1887, the population of Boles increased from just a few people to around 100. A church, schoolhouse, blacksmith shop, wood shop, shoe shop, post office and hotel had been established in Boles by this time. Also active within the community were four merchants. … One of the main industries in Boles in the 19th century was cotton, and the town had a steam-powered gin. Water was hauled from the Fourche La Fave River by wagon.”

The last school at Boles closed in 1968. Students now go to Waldron for school.

The Fourche La Fave starts just west of Boles. It runs for about 140 miles through Scott, Yell and Perry counties before emptying into the Arkansas River. Construction of Nimrod Dam on the river in Perry County was completed in 1942 and created Nimrod Lake.

“The origin of the river’s name is open to debate,” Guy Lancaster writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “Fourche is French for fork, and La Fave may be in reference either to a family that once lived along the river or to early settler Peter La Fave. The fork of the river is the South Fourche La Fave River, which rises in the Ouachita Mountains near Onyx in Yell County and empties into the Fourche La Fave River near Deberrie in Perry County.”

Early settlers grew cotton along the river.

“In 1841-42, German writer Friedrich Gerstacker resided and hunted in Arkansas, mostly along the Fourche La Fave,” Lancaster writes. “These experiences provided background for some of an 1844 book as well as an 1845 novel that describes vigilantism along the river. On another trip to the United States in 1867, he returned to Arkansas specifically to hunt along the Fourche La Fave and visit his friend Gustavus Klingelhoffer.

“Early transportation along the river was conducted by keelboat, but even this was challenging given the numerous shoals along the course of the waterway. On March 3, 1879, Congress passed an act to improve the river. This included dynamiting some of the rocky shoals to create a deeper channel for transportation. By 1889, the river was navigable up to either Perryville or Aplin in Perry County, depending on the level of the water.”

After leaving Boles, we pass through a community with an interesting name — Needmore.

Richardson explains: “Until around 1926, there were no businesses or religious establishments in the area now known as Needmore. That year, John Walls built a 10-by-20-foot building east of Highway 71 and south of Highway 28 and began selling necessities to residents. Sometime later, Pat Murphy began managing the store. Murphy stocked a limited supply of groceries, like most small stores in the county. When a customer would come into the store asking for something Murphy did not have, he would often reply by saying, ‘I need more of that.’

“This became a running joke with members of the community. Customers would intentionally ask for items he did not have in order to keep the joke running. People in the community began calling the store Needmore, and eventually the community was known by the same name.”

We make our way into Waldron, which is about 50 miles south of Fort Smith. The town is on the South Fork of the Poteau River.

Waldron officially was incorporated on Dec. 17, 1852. Featherston’s barn on Main Street served as the courthouse until a structure was built in 1859.

“The production of raw material on the surrounding farms and in the forests sustained the early economy,” Wanda Gray writes for the Encyclopedia of Arkansas. “The landowners sold cotton, corn and lumber, enabling them to buy or barter for processed or manufactured goods. The businessmen of Waldron provided cotton gins, lumber mills and gristmills. … Early boarding houses and hotels provided accommodations for travelers along the Fort Smith-Red River Road, the major western Arkansas corridor passing through the center of Waldron.”

Goodner describes the so-called Waldron War as “a decade-long period of violence that began during the Reconstruction era and was characterized by arson, general lawlessness, personal and political feuds, electoral misconduct and violence — including murder — throughout Scott County. The civil strife resulted in Govs. Augustus Garland and William Miller dispatching the state militia to the county on at least three occasions to restore order. With much of Waldron burned by departing Union troops in 1864, the citizens faced the re-establishment of the infrastructure of the town. While hostile feelings remained between those sympathetic to the Union cause and the Confederate cause, much of the strife was attributed to personality conflicts within the local Republican Party. Although there was the occasional outburst of lawlessness such as arson and election fraud in the period immediately following the Civil War, for the most part the town progressed with rebuilding and economic growth.

“The cycle of contentious elections began in 1870 with the naming of the Scott County Board of Registrars by Gov. Powell Clayton. James M. Bethel, a member of the board, was later declared to have defeated the father of fellow board member W.J. Ellington in a race for the Legislature, resulting in rumors and accusations about the election. The gossip and intrigue were compounded by Bethel’s failure to arrive in Little Rock to begin his term. He was soon found dead on an area mountain, and published reports attributed Bethel’s death to causes varying from natural to weather-related to murder. The election of 1872 saw a pattern not unlike the election of 1870. Reports of voter registration books missing from the clerk’s office circulated as did rumors, accusations and innuendos about the election process.”

Numerous arrests followed.

Goodner notes that “increasing political pressure and personality conflicts ushered in a new intensity and violent fervor to the already unsettled political climate in 1874. The year was marked by a violent cycle, though with few apprehensions and convictions of rumored perpetrators. A longtime feud within the Republican Party was highlighted with the shooting of prominent citizen Cerop Malone. A former sheriff, Nathan Floyd, was charged with the shooting but was later acquitted. In 1875, Floyd sustained a gunshot wound and chose to leave the state. An outburst of violence in 1876 brought arson, which left Waldron’s business district in ashes, along with several murders.”

After the state militia was sent to Waldron in 1878 in an attempt to impose order, things settled down.

A branch of the Kansas City Southern Railroad reached Waldron in 1903, a stone jail was constructed in 1908 and the first automobile arrived in 1912.

“By 1920, the town had a bank, a weekly newspaper, a canning factory, a flour mill, a brick factory, a soda pop plant, an ice and cold storage plant, electricity, telephones, large lumber interests, natural gas, mercantile businesses and a population of 918 residents,” Gray writes. “The first movie houses in Waldron were small and did not have talking movies, but by the 1930s a new movie theater adorned Main Street and talking movies were the rage. The muddy main streets of the town were improved with a cover of hard-surface materials, the water systems were changed from private wells and cisterns to a central water system and the outdoor toilets were eliminated when a city sewer system was established.”

Unlike many surrounding towns, Waldron has grown steadily through the years. It had a population of 3,618 residents in the 2010 census.

The Waldron Commercial Historic District was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in September 2008. It consists of buildings along Main Street from First Street to Fifth Street. There are 35 structures in the area that were built between 1880 and 1958.

“Many new brick commercial buildings were built on Main Street during the 1880s and 1890s, including the Boston Cash Store building in 1880 and the Dozier & Son building in 1890,” Richardson writes. “Businesses flourished on Main Street after the turn of the century. In 1901, the Bank of Waldron and First National Bank both opened on South Main Street. … The City Garage, which sold Ford automobiles, opened directly west of the courthouse in 1916. In the 1930s, the New Deal brought the Works Progress Administration to Scott County to provide jobs for people in the area who were suffering during the Depression. Main Street was paved for the first time between First and Fifth streets. In 1931, the Pines Theatre opened on South Main Street. A new courthouse was completed in 1934 with help from the WPA. Throughout the 1940s and 1950s, Waldron shifted from a commercial center to an industrial town with less focus on the Main Street area.”

The Pines was renamed the Scott Theater in 1940. It still operates and is one of the oldest theaters in this part of the country.

Post to Twitter